US Federal and Municipal Departments
In the United States different police departments are existed, in fact no other nation in world has such system. The United States has 60 federal agencies, 26 highway patrol, 23 agencies for State police besides 35 states have additional state agencies with limited purpose. With regard to the municipal police, at about 15,000 municipal departments are existed. These municipal and state policing called as local police. The federal agencies have been given powers in the areas of 200 federal crimes, where the local police cannot interfere.
LAW ENFORCEMENT AND ROLE OF LOCAL POLICE
The criminal justice is based on legal, social and ethical systems. In the criminal justice system such officers includes police officer, court officers, correctional officer and related supervisory personnel.
Law enforcement is popular meaning of police function. When law has been violated or suspect in the cases such as robbery, murder, burglary etc, the role of police starts. The provision o f criminal justice linked mainly with the function of police, which includes order maintenance, law enforcement and service. The State and local enforcement agencies has 1,076,897 full time personnel. Local police includes County sheriffs, county police, state police and highway patrols. These police enforce laws in their particular jurisdictions. The federal government will not interfere into the local police powers since restrictions imposed in constitution. Because the United States is organized as a union of sovereign states, hence each state can retain their police, military and domestic law-making powers and hence law enforcement is local state responsibility for which federal cannot interfere
ROLE PRIVATE SECURITY PERSONNEL
The private security personnel are who is paid to protect property or people. The security personnel primary duty is protect lives and property but not to arrest. The main job is to detect, deter, observe and report the content. However in some jurisdictions of united states, the security personnel is invested with arrest powers like county sheriff. Security personnel derive their powers from the contractual arrangement as agent. But the police got powers from the state.
Private security personnel enjoy the powers according to own discretion with non-traditional methods without public funds whereas the police have limitations of powers and restrictions. The private security is one of the fastest growing industry and more than 4000 agencies are available which includes famous agencies like Pinkerton Burns, Wackenhut, Guardsmark, Wells Fargo and Allied. The private security is tailor made item and it is not funded by public money.
ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT WITH HOMELAND SECURITY
The homeland security has been given foremost job for federal government especially for the federal government. By means of Guarding of borders, protecting the country’s valuation infrastructure during heightened alerts, the homeland security showing its competency. But in fact, the local governments must be more alert rather than federal government. If the local governments are not actively participating, the federal government should concentrates on all the states. Hence local governments role is more important which provide homeland security, which is one main part of the criminal justice.
LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY
Law enforcement agency means, which enforces the law. Mostly law enforcement agencies are police forces. Besides there are agencies like Drug Enforcement agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation etc. All these agencies responsible for enforcing federal laws. The police power is limited to state level power, which was granted by state laws. Enforcement of federal laws is not linked with the police of state. Hence the Law enforcement agencies may be local, national and international.
As the federal government cannot interfere in the state matters, it cannot monitor the state level situations. And the local police can extend their services within the state only with the available sources. Hence there is a chance that the quality of service may not be provided with the available founds and requires funds from federal government. But the needs such as local police, fire, rescue and hospital capabilities must not be linked with homeland security needs. And they should not be funded with homeland security dollars.
At this juncture we should remember 9/11 issue. During that time the homeland security dollars are used in an unfocused way in order to redress such pre existing shortfalls like police, health etc. which causes less influence in homeland security. Hence the federal government should provide more funds other than from homeland security. The federal government can also offer reimbursement practice to the local agencies for effective law enforcement. The local and state authorities must see their homeland security responsibilities since they are primarily responsible to prevent attacks.
The federal government can enhance its skills based on the help provided by the local or state authorities to have better conclusion. The federal government should provide the funds to local governments so that at least they should reach per capita income. However the funds are available with other agencies like Drug Control policy, which is part of Federal government. The programs like Drug Court Discretionary Grant Program, Drug free communities support program etc. are existed at present.
CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS
It is nothing but crime analysis and recognized by law enforcement. The relationship indicates between crime data and available relevant data. The analysis helps the law enforcers, policy makers, and decisions makers, which includes police and private personnel. The private personnel almost play the equal role with the police and they can share the information about criminal data, which can be used for criminal intelligence analysis.
POLICE VS PRIVATE SECURITY PERSONNEL
A gap between police and private security has been developed for several years. Police officers view the private personnel as little more than them. Even the police officers things that private personnel or private security officers or uneducated and ill trained guards and meant for such watching the buildings and construction sites. Instead the private personnel reject the police authority for the treatment of police officers.
In order to fill the gap, efforts made by the APPL program, which elevates the importance of the private personnel and their role in the society, so that the police community may realize. Area Police-Private Security Liaison program, which indicates to the end the gap between the police and private security personnel. The committee is Area Police-Private Security Liaison Committee. The APPL program, though considerable time elapsed, still could not achieve the desired result and the gap is in existence.
The local police is and the homeland security funded by the public whereas the private personnel is not funded by the public. But in the United States the agencies of private personnel plays a greater role and the industry is increasing rapidly. Naturally the private personnel also in a position to crease the qualities, which are linked with criminal justice and criminal analysis.
There is also possibility; the agencies may have so much data, which is most useful to the local police as well as federal. Definitely the role of the private personnel is most considerable in the providing criminal justice and law enforcement. In other words, if the services of private personnel are not taken, it leads the handicap to the local police as well as Federal Government.
Now, It is the point of time to take the assistance from private personnel, and the local police should not hesitate to get the assistance. Due to this reason only, the APPL Programme has been established by the committee known, as is Area Police-Private Security Liaison Committee. Hence funds can be demanded from Federal Government and can be used in local for effective law enforcement. Naturally with this attitude local police and private personnel will be able to work with combine and to access of share of information of the criminal data.
While increasing the role of private personnel since public funds are being utilized for the increase and growth of private personnel, it is also inevitable to such agencies to be accountable to the public also. So that the local police, private personnel and homeland security involves with public funds, naturally they will have one common goal, which is public, and there will not be any difference of opinion while settling the issues. If such situation arises, all i.e. the three forces i.e. local police, private personnel and the homeland security would be benefited, of course public at large.