Review of Articles on Medical Diseases and Problems

Table of Contents

Abused Methacathinone

This article presents research on the abnormalities that affect white matter among individuals who abuse methacathinone and suffer from extrapyramidal syndrome. The researchers who composed this paper concentrated on individuals who abused methacathinone thorough intravenous means. The article is authored by several medical researchers and the research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research Centre. This article concentrates on how the white matter integrity affects extrapyramidal tract. The results of the article indicated that damage on the corticospinal tract affect motor functions to some extent. This article is a review of the article on how intravenous methacathinone abusers suffer from ailments associated with extrapyramidal tract and white matter.

Previously, it was clear that most forms of drug abuse were harmful to the white matter. However, it was not clear if the neurological disorders that are associated with continuous drug abuse are detrimental to extrapyramidal tract. The article’s research presents new insights into the subject of methacathinone abuse, extrapyramidal tract, and neurological disorders. Furthermore, this article provides detailed analysis of how neurological disorders affect the extrapyramidal tract. For instance, the article reveals that methacathinone “users develop a neurological disorder attributed to toxicity from the residual manganese in the injected solution” (Stepens, Stagg, Platkājis, Boudrias, & Donaghy, 2010, p. 3677). The resulting damage into the extrapyramidal tract is manifested through facial impassivity, micrographia, generally slowed movement, low-volume speech, distorted arm swing, and difficulties when walking backwards. This article provides new and important details about how damage to the extrapyramidal tract is manifested among patients.

The scientific community was already aware that most forms of drug abuse led to direct problems to the white matter and the extrapyramidal tract. However, there is little research on the effects of intravenous methacathinone abuse to individuals. On the other hand, there is little research into the specific effects of intravenous methacathinone abuse in relation to extrapyramidal syndromes. In this article, the researchers used detailed brain analysis and an in-depth pathways analysis to determine how methacathinone factors in extrapyramidal ailments. The research in this article is quite straightforward and there are very few instances of conflicts of interest. For instance, the institute that funded this research is impartial and it does not harbor vested interests when it comes to treatment and medication of white matter analysis. The article is important to readers because it is able to separate various issues and analyze them independently.

Non-motor Manifestations of Extrapyramidal Diseases

This article is authored jointly by various universities in Germany through the Movement Disorder Research Group, and Departments of Neurology. The article focuses on the non-motor manifestations of extrapyramidal diseases. The authors of the article reveal that the autonomic effects of extrapyramidal diseases often hinder a person’s quality of life as opposed to motor functions. Consequently, there is a lot of misdiagnosis when it comes to extrapyramidal diseases that do not affect the motor functions. Consequently, the authors of this article set out to highlight the “limited overview on the treatment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital and sudomotor autonomic dysfunction in various extrapyramidal syndromes” (Ziemssen et al., 2011 p. 339). This article is a review of the alternative effects of extrapyramidal syndromes.

Previously, it was common to associate extrapyramidal ailments with loss of motor functions only. Consequently, diseases that mostly affect motor functions such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) are only examined using the criteria of how they affect movement as opposed to their effects on the quality of life. However, this article highlights this issue by pointing out the importance of the autonomic nervous system in relation to extrapyramidal syndrome. The article lists the ‘non-motor’ functions that are in question to include “behavioral, sleep or perception dysfunctions as well as dysautonomia” (Ziemssen et al., 2011 p. 441). Therefore, the authors of the article present a new direction of the research into extrapyramidal tract defects. The scientific community and researchers in general were aware of the motor effects of extrapyramidal diseases. However, this research presents previously unexplored areas of motor dysfunctions. For instance, this article explores how extrapyramidal diseases can affect sexual, sudomotor, urological, intestinal, gastric, and cardiovascular functions. In future, scholars can split the authors’ new perspectives further with the view of expounding on individual areas of interest. For example, researchers can look into the deeper relationships between sexual functions and extrapyramidal disorders.

There are no declared conflicts of interest in this research article. However, the broadness of the article’s main subject makes it hard for readers to grasp the article’s thesis. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the authors break venture into new dimensions when it comes to the non-motor effects of extrapyramidal syndrome. The authors also correctly point out that although extrapyramidal disorders have been affecting motor functions for several years, research on this area has been scarce. Consequently, the area of autonomic nervous system in relation to extrapyramidal syndrome is a rich area that warrants additional research.

Diseases of the Extrapyramidal System

In this article, the authors explore the genetic variants in diseases of the extrapyramidal system. The article was first published in the “Curr Genomics” Journal and it is a joint effort by various authors. The authors recognize that advancements into the field of genetic mapping have made it easier to identify several of the disorders that are associated with basal ganglia. Furthermore, it has become easier to define normal and abnormal motor controls. The authors’ main goal is to review literature that explores “selected issues on the molecular basis and diagnostic capabilities of certain diseases of the extrapyramidal system” (Oczkowska, Kozubski, Lianeri, & Dorszewska, 2014, p. 18).

My prior understanding of the disorders of the extrapyramidal system was limited to the knowledge of their side effects. For instance, my understanding of the extrapyramidal disorders is closely related to motor functions as a result of damage to the extrapyramidal-tract. In addition, I have never considered any genetic variations within the ranks of extrapyramidal disorders. However, this article introduces a new dimension into the research on extrapyramidal disorders by providing an independent analysis of some of the conditions that are associated with the extrapyramidal system. For example, analysis into Parkinson’s disease indicates that the disease can be mapped genetically. Other researchers have disputed the ability to detect Parkinson’s disease through genetic mapping because its chances of success are relatively low. In addition, the main disorders that are related to Parkinson’s including dementia and multiple system atrophy were largely thought to be non-genetic. Consequently, most scientists interpreted Parkinson’s disease to be a variant of non-genetic conditions. The argument that is presented by the authors is well researched and it presents credible evidence that genetics play a vital role in most diseases of the extrapyramidal system.

Another interesting albeit debatable fact that is presented by the authors in this article is the new insights into Huntington’s disease. According to the article, Huntington’s disease is connected to genetics because there are genes that determine its onset. If the genetic mapping of Huntington’s disease is perfected, individuals can be prepared to deal with the disease in advance. The authors of this article have confirmed that they have no conflict of interest when it comes to the article’s subject matter. The authors’ argument points out to a lack of vested interests because it represents all possible views.

Malaria

This article is about a case study that was encountered in Nigeria where a child who had suffered from Malaria exhibited extrapyramidal tract manifestation. The paper is jointly authored by the physicians who handled the case as well as other medical scholars. According to the article, Malaria is an infection that is caused by a parasite and it is usually manifested through high fever. However, the authors present a case where an 8-year-boy presented ‘abnormal’ manifestation of malaria including deafness, blindness, and loss of motor function (Okike, Onyire, & Chinawa, 2015). The article points out that the extrapyramidal tract manifestation within the patient was realized through multiple convulsions that later resulted in a 12-day coma. The authors reveal that after the boy came out of his coma, the extrapyramidal manifestations were eased when he was treated using chlorpromazine. This review centers on the rarity of the manifestations that were witnessed in the malaria patient.

The known manifestations of malaria range from fever, joint pains, and minor body shakes. Physicians are always on the lookout for these symptoms as the key manifestations of malaria. Cerebral malaria is a form of malaria that is closely related to extrapyramidal tract. It is common knowledge that “cerebral malaria is one of these severe manifestations with its attendant sequelae such as cerebral palsy, cortical blindness, and sensory-neural deafness” (Okike et al., 2015, p. 321). However, the extrapyramidal manifestations of cerebral malaria are often ignored because they are quite rare. This article is important to the medical stakeholders because it is a reminder that the often-ignored malaria ailment can be manifested through serious functions such as extrapyramidal disorders. Furthermore, the authors of this article do a good job in differentiating between the normal strands of malaria with the one that is manifested in a cerebral mode. The defects in extrapyramidal tract as a result of cerebral malaria are rarely recorded even in reputable medical literature. Consequently, doctors are required to take note of both the rarity and the seriousness of the extrapyramidal conditions that are associated with cerebral malaria. The authors of this article are too shallow and they do not emphasize on their thesis to the highest-possible levels. Nevertheless, there appears to be no conflict of interest as far as the authors of this article are concerned.

Methods of Treatment of Extrapyramidal Diseases

This article addresses the surgical treatment that can be applied to extrapyramidal diseases. The article is authored by Paul Bucy, a professor in the Department of Neurology at the University of Illinois in Chicago. The author of this article begins by noting that there is no definitive surgical method that can be used to remedy extrapyramidal diseases. However, the author of the article notes that in the past surgical procedures have been used to alleviate lesions of the extrapyramidal system. According to the article, human beings are rarely used as test subjects for surgical treatments in cases of extrapyramidal disorders. The author of this article seeks to find out the past, current, and future attempts at using surgical methods when dealing with extrapyramidal disorders.

In the past, surgery has been considered as either a ‘last resort’ or a ‘wild new concept’ of dealing with extrapyramidal disorders. The proposition that surgery can be used to remedy disorders that touch on the nervous system is concept that has been around for quite some time. However, the concept using surgery to alleviate extrapyramidal disorders is hindered by the high likelihood of complications and lack of enough research and equipment that can handle these delicate procedures. This author of this article correctly highlights this predicament when he notes that “our knowledge of the extrapyramidal systems, their structures, functions, and disorders is still woefully incomplete” (Bucy, 2011, p. 108). This argument is quite accurate because up to date, surgical procedures have been used as solutions for several medical conditions. However, surgical procedures are yet to be perfected for use in conditions that concern the nervous system or the white matter of the brain.

Scientists have conducted extensive studies on the viability of using surgery for conditions that touch on the extrapyramidal tract. For example, chimpanzees, monkeys, and baboons have been used in the study of extrapyramidal tract. One of the most important facts that are revealed by the author of this article is the main uses of the extrapyramidal system. The article accurately points out that the extrapyramidal system is responsible for producing some coarse and random movements among human beings. Consequently, it is detrimental to try to interfere with these functions through a surgical procedure.

References

Bucy, P. C. (2011). The surgical treatment of extrapyramidal diseases. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, 14(2), 108-120.

Oczkowska, A., Kozubski, W., Lianeri, M., & Dorszewska, J. (2014). Genetic Variants in Diseases of the Extrapyramidal System. Current genomics, 15(1), 18-23.

Okike, C., Onyire, N., & Chinawa, J. (2015). Cerebral malaria complicated by blindness, deafness, and extra pyramidal tract manifestation. Ann Med Health Sci Res, 5(4), 321-322.

Stepens, A., Stagg, C. J., Platkājis, A., Boudrias, M. H., & Donaghy, M. (2010). White matter abnormalities in methcathinone abusers with an extrapyramidal syndrome. Brain, 133(12), 3676-3684.

Ziemssen, T., Fuchs, G., Greulich, W., Reichmann, H., Schwarz, M., & Herting, B. (2011). Treatment of dysautonomia in extrapyramidal disorders. Journal of neurology, 258(2), 339-345.

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