Renal System Study Guide

Renal System Study Guide Med/Surg I Major Functions of Kidney: Regulation of Homeostasis -Filters blood & regulates contents (water content & blood volume) -Maintain acid-base balance -Control fluid & electrolytes -Excrete metabolic waste products -Control BP (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone) Urinary System Structure: Kidneys (produce urine), Ureters (transport urine to bladder), Bladder (stores urine), Urethra (conduct urine outside body) *Nephron- working unit of kidney *Kidneys receive 25% of cardiac output= approx. 1 Liter GRF= 125ml/min & increases at night Renal Hormones: ADH- works in DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE Aldosterone- made in ADRENAL CORTEX ANP- inhibits secretion of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone & water absorption by kidney tubules Erythropoietin- stimulates marrow to make more RBC’s Renin- made & released in JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE decreased renal perfusion= low BP ;JGA releases renin ;Liver releases angiotensin I ;Lungs convert angio I to angiotensin II ; Increase in BP due to VASOCONSTRICTION, myocardial contractility, VOLUME INCREASE becase ALDOSTERONE is released by ADRENAL CORTEX ;Aldosterone causes sodium & water to be REABSORPTION & potassium excretion **** This stops once BP is normal because it is a NEGATIVE feedback system Lab Tests/Diagnostics: Creatnine- 0. 6-1. 2 End product of muscle & protein metabolism -reflects GFR, renal disease is the only condition to increase creatnine level (not effected by hydration status) BUN- 8-16 measures amount of urea (byproduct of protein metabolism in liver) -factors affecting BUN: hydration/ urine flow, hypoperfusion, metabolic rate, drugs, diet Elevated BUN with normal creatnine= DEHYDRATION/Volume depletion/low perfusion -Elevated BUN & Creatnine= RENAL FAILURE/Dysfunction Specific Gravity- 1. 003-1. 030 measures ability of kidneys to concentrate urine -increased spec. grav = (more concentrated urine) dehydration, low perfusion, too much ADH -decreased sep. grav = (less concentrated urine) too much fluid, diabetes insipidus, or inability of kidneys to concentrate urine Creatnine Clearance- evaluates how well kidneys remove creatnine from blood -best estimate for GFR renal threshold of glucose = blood glucose level of at least 180 before it spills over in urine *bacturia- males 10,00 colonies, females 100,00 colonies of bacteria Renal Calculi/stones: Causes: dehydration, infection, change in urine pH, obstruction, diet, immobilization, metabolic factors S/S: CVA (Costal-vertebral angle) pain, N, abdominal distention, fever, chills, hematuria, pyruria DX: KUB, US, Urine cx, stone analysis, serum calcium & phosphorus to detect hormonal problems TX: hydration/push fluids, abx, toradol (relaxes ureters), diuretics NSG: strain urine, stone analysis, push fluids 3-4L/day, teach diet & s/s of obstruction

Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis – bil. inflammation of glomeruli Causes: Strep infection, impetigo S/S: edema, azotemia, hematuria, oliguria, fatigue, HTN, na retention DX: elevated ASO (antistreptolysin-O titer), elevated electrolyte, BUN,& Creatnine, KUB-bil kidney enlargement TX: relief of symptoms, bedrest, fluid & sodium restrictions, abx, daily BUN & creatnine, diet- high calories, low protein sodium potassium & fluids. Acute Pyelonephritis sudden bacterial inflammation of kidney risk factors: urinary stasis, inablility to empty bladder (BPH/enlarged prostate), obstruction, sex, pregnancy, DM S/S: urinary freq. & urgency, dysuria, hematuria, elevated temp, chills, flank pain, anorexia, malaise UA: show pyuria, hematuria, low spec. gravity, alkaline pH, proteinuria, gycosuria, kentonuria TX: abx, analgesic, reculture urine 1 week after abx complete NSG: antipyretics, increase fluids, monitor for fever

Nephrotic syndrome -clinical manifestations caused by protein wasting secondary to diffuse glomerular damage usually after stress to immune system s/s: proteinuria, low albumin, edema, hyperlipidemia, hypovolemia nsg: low protein high calorie diet, i/o’s, sodium & fluid restriction, weights, treat underlying cause Renal Failure Prerenal- obstructs flow to kidneys ex: CV disease, hypovolemia, peripheral vasodilation, severe vasoconstriction Intrarenal- poisions kidney tissue x: acute glomerular nephritis, pyelonephritis, sickle cells, lupus Postrenal- bladder obstruction, treteral obstruction S/S of Acute Renal Failure: anorexia, uremic breath, oliguria, n/v/d -elevated BUN/creatnine & K+ -low pH, Bicarb, Hgb & Hct Tx: reestablish effective renal function, high calorie diet, diet low in protein sodium & potassium, restrict fluid, vitamin supplements, MONITOR FOR HYPERKALEMIA NSG: i/o’s, monitor electrolytes, h, & vitals, check for pericarditis, small frequent meals BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) prostatic growth that may block urethra -blockage can cause UTI’s, delayed urinary emptying detrusor muscles weakends results in urinary retention– pt unable to urinate can cause uremia, bladder rupture & peritonitis TURP (Transurethral Resection of Prostate) -surgery that uses a resectoscope to go in urethra & clip out portions of prostate -continous bladder irrigation to prevent clots nsg: keep penis clean. never remove foley, Kegel exercises

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with MyHomeworkGeeks
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
excellent job made a 93
Customer 452773, March 22nd, 2023
Business and administrative studies
looks good thank you
Customer 452773, March 3rd, 2023
Business and administrative studies
Customer 452773, March 3rd, 2023
Thank you!!! I received my order in record timing.
Customer 452551, February 9th, 2021
Business and administrative studies
excellent work
Customer 452773, March 12th, 2023
Customer 452591, March 18th, 2021
Thank youuuu
Customer 452729, May 30th, 2021
Great job
Customer 452773, February 13th, 2023
Love this writer!!! Great work
Customer 452597, April 5th, 2021
Business and administrative studies
excellent paper
Customer 452773, March 3rd, 2023
Social Work and Human Services
Great work I would love to continue working with this writer thought out the 11 week course.
Customer 452667, May 30th, 2021
10th grade English
very good
Customer 452773, March 26th, 2023
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Sometimes it is hard to do all the work on your own

Let us help you get a good grade on your paper. Get professional help and free up your time for more important courses. Let us handle your;

  • Dissertations and Thesis
  • Essays
  • All Assignments

  • Research papers
  • Terms Papers
  • Online Classes