This essay is devoted to the prevention of pressure ulcer development. It aims to dwell upon stages of pressure ulcer development. Besides, it will outline the reason for pressure ulcers to appear. After that, the ways of problem prevention will be presented.
Stages of Pressure Ulcers Development
There are four stages of pressure ulcer development. Here is the description of stages one: the skin integument is not disrupted. There is stable hyperemia which does not disappear after pressure termination. At stage two, it is possible to notice surface (but not deep) disruption of the skin integument which has spread to the subcutaneous tissues. There is stable hyperemia. Besides, there is the exfoliation of the epidermis. These stages do not require surgery (Zone & Guide, 2015). At stage three, the skin integument is disrupted up to the muscular layer with the muscle affected. The pressure ulcer looks like a wound. There can be liquid discharge. As for stage four, all soft tissues are disrupted. Some cavities uncover underlying tissues (tendons, up to bones.). These stages might require surgery (Brockington, 2016).
Reasons for Pressure Ulcers Development
Pressure ulcer development is a matter of insufficient care. It is easier to try to prevent them than to treat them. If everything is organized correctly, the risk for pressure ulcer appearance and development reduces. Here are the reasons for pressure ulcer development: 1) low-quality care about the patient, 2) overweight or underweight of the patient; 3) diseases which lead to disturbance of tropism of tissues; 4) increases or decreases in the body temperature; 5) insufficient protein nutrition; 6) anemia; 7) dry skin; 8) inconsistency of urine and feces; and 9) limited mobility (Dealey, Bringle, Black, Alves, Santamaria, Call, & Clark, 2015). It is important to tackle this issue promptly and effectively to avoid pressure ulcer development.
How to Prevent Pressure Ulcer Development
Since pressure ulcer development is easier to prevent than to treat, it is wise to discuss the ways of its development prevention. Here are six ways. First, it is necessary to eliminate any pressure. It is useful to apply an anti-pressure-ulcer mattress, inflatable rings, as well as to change the body position every two hours. Moreover, the right hygiene pattern is critical. It is necessary to provide constant regular correct care, namely, skincare, especially in places that are prone to pressure ulcer development. It is necessary to wipe the skin and change the bedsheets and clothing regularly (Call, Pedersen, Bill, Black, Alves, Bringle, Alves, Dealey, Santamaria, & Clark, 2015).
It has to be considered crucial to organize the patient’s daily regime. A post-surgery patient’s routine should include regular changes in the body position. It is vital not to allow the patient to lie in the same position for a long time. Besides, it is necessary to schedule treatment and dressings and establish a sleeping regime. Apart from that, it is important to establish a dietary pattern, including meals time table, and food allowance. It is highly recommended that the patient should consume food rich in proteins, as proteins help to build up tissues. Besides, it is important to drink at least a liter and a half of water (Maughan & Peach 2015).
It is important to bear in mind that, despite having overcome a surgery, the patient is supposed to try to be active as much as his condition allows. It is claimed that respiratory gymnastics and physiotherapy exercises might come in handy. What is more, the doctor’s prompt consultancy and the medical personnel’s observation are acknowledged to be uppermost. In case any redness on the skin happens to be noticed in the place which is prone to pressure ulcer development, the medical personnel is expected to strengthen the five above-mentioned measures. Besides, treatment is expected to be begun at once. It is necessary to apply a solution of potassium permanganate or brilliant green on a starting pressure ulcer once or twice a day (Warner, Raible, Haiduk, & Collavo, 2017).
This essay has considered stages of pressure ulcer developments. There are four of them. The first two do not require surgery, whereas the last two need it. Besides, the essay has outlined the reasons for pressure ulcer development. The key one is low-quality care. Apart from that, six ways to prevent pressure ulcer development have been considered. They are the elimination of any pressure, the right hygiene pattern, the daily regime, the dietary pattern, the patient’s possible activity, and a regular consultancy and observation.
Brockington, R. (2016). Pressure ulcer prevention. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, (38)2, pp. 117-119.
Call, E., Pedersen, J., Bill, B., Black, J., Alves, P., Bringle, C. T., Alves, P., Dealey, C., Santamaria, N., & Clark, M. (2015). Enhancing pressure ulcer prevention using wound dressing: What are the modes of action? International Wound Journal, 12(4), 408-412.
Dealey, C., Bringle, C. T., Black, J., Alves, P., Santamaria, N., Call, E., & Clark, M. (2015). Challenges in pressure ulcer prevention. International Wound Journal, 12(3), 309-312.
Maughan, H., & Peach M. (2015). Challenges in pressure ulcer prevention. Nursing in Practice, 85(3), 23-28.
Warner, J., Raible, A. M., Haiduk, G., & Collavo, J. (2017). Best practices for pressure ulcer prevention in the burn centre. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, (40)1, pp. 41-48.
Zone, C. P. D., & Guide, S. (2015). Providing patient centred pressure ulcer care. Nursing in Practice, 85(2), 84-87.