Which dosage forms are most appropriate for administering drugs to pediatric patients? Adults?
Administration of drugs for pediatric patients is a serious issue. It is not enough to identify this group of patients as small adults because of existing anatomical and physiological characteristics (Martínez-Terán, Hoang-Thi, & Flament, 2017). The main requirements for dose measurement include potency (30 mg for newborns and 1 g for adolescents and adults), types (drops for babies, liquids or melt tablets for children, tablets and capsules for adolescents and adults), and the route of administration (orally, rectally, topically, or through inhalation). To define the most appropriate dosage, an understanding of the desired possible side effects is required.
What are the processes involved in disintegration and dissolution?
interactions?Pharmaceutical dosage forms include all appropriate forms that may be administrated to patients. Medication performance depends on its disintegration and dissolution processes. Disintegration consists of a number of processes when substances are broken down, new tiny fragments occur, improving solubility of substances, and compounds have to be disintegrated in specific chemical reactions (Markl & Zeitler, 2017). Dissolution includes the processes when solid substances dissolve in a solvent and produce the required solution (Markl & Zeitler, 2017). To work effectively, the affinity between the substance and the solvent must be controlled.
Give a definition of pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics is an important branch of pharmacology that aims at explaining what happens to a drug from the period it enters the body and leaves it with time. This study describes the peculiarities of four main processes a medication has to take in the body. They include absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
Examine the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and explain why they occur in this order
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion are the criteria that describe the disposition of a compound in the body. Absorption is the quality of movement of a drug to the blood. Depending on the form of a drug, its absorption period can vary. Distribution is the way of how a drug moves in the body. It depends on the blood flow and its unique abilities. Metabolism is the process when a drug is transformed within the body to be prepared for another stage, excretion, where this drug is removed from the body, completing their initial goals.
What determines the absorption ability of a drug?
The absorption ability of a drug is determined by several factors. They may include drug’s physiochemical properties, its form, and the route of administration. In addition, such factors as blood flow or pain stress in a patient have to be recognized to promote better absorption in a short period of time.
Give a definition of the term pharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics is one of the branches of pharmacology with its goals and requirements. It focuses on the ways of how a drug can affect the body and discusses its mechanism of action (Keller & Hann, 2018). The peculiar feature of this branch is to identify biochemical, molecular, and other features of a drug and explain the relationships between the chosen dosage and response.
Compare the different ways drugs can interact with the body, depending on their mechanism of action
Drugs can interact with the body in different ways which are discussed within the frames of pharmacodynamics. For example, there are drug-receptor interactions when a drug has to interact with cells while circulating in the bloodstream. Chemical interactions should also be mentioned as they are inherent to the drugs that do not perform altering cellular functions.
What relationship is there between drug response relationships, serum-concentration profile, and drug manufacturing?
Drug-response relationships, serum-concentration profile, and drug manufacturing are characterized by such common criteria time and dose. Time response relationships define the maximal effect (response) of the drug during a certain period of time. Dose response depends on two factors: potency and efficacy. Potency defines the dose of a drug so a maximal response (efficacy) can be produced.
How does an adverse effect of a drug occur? What are the causes of some drug-drug
An adverse effect of a drug occurs when a patient takes a drug in order to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. It is an injury that may be explained by a wrong or inappropriate administration, the change of dosage, or the neglect of professional recommendations. Drug-drug interactions can be the reason for adverse effects. These interactions are usually caused because of the impossibility to predict the overall effect of both drugs or because of toxicity or hypersensitivity to one of the drugs.
Keller, F., & Hann, A. (2018). Clinical pharmacodynamics: Principles of drug response and alterations in kidney disease. Clinical Journal of American Society of Nephrology, 13(9), 1413-1420. Web.
Markl, D., & Zeitler, J. A. (2017). A review of disintegration mechanisms and measurement techniques. Pharmaceutical Research, 34(5), 890-917. Web.
Martínez-Terán, M. E., Hoang-Thi, T. H., & Flament, M. P. (2017). Multi-particulate dosage forms for pediatric use. Pediatrics & Therapeutics, 7(1), 1-6. Web.