Paleolithic rock art: People left their hunting records, drawings of their culture and experiences on cave walls with bright colors, some of which have been preserved up to today. Also, Paleolithic people made small statues or carvings out of stone, of figures such as Venus figures. In addition, although It may seem Like art to modern world, they used stone tools to hunt and gather. 1.
Venus figurines : In places all over the world, from Europe to Russia, figurines of women have been found, They were carved out of stone, antlers, and deferent trials, but similar in shape, a figure of a women with exaggerated figures. They suggest ancient societies having or worshipping a women goddess, as well as indicating that there may have been communication across lands. 1. Dermatome: In Paleolithic Australia, there were aboriginal people called the Dermatome. They had complex and developed stories on the world, as well as rituals which included their people got to their current location.
Their outlook on life was based on historical events that took place; all nature was a sense of mirror image to their past events. Also, they had communication with various other groups/isosceles over a large area of land, exchanging tools, drugs, cultures, and ornaments. 1. Clevis culture: The Clevis people were bands of people scattered all over North America. They were considered one of the first people of America, mostly killing large animals such as bison and mammoth, living along mostly water. Some artifacts suggest that although they were distributed far apart, they may have had some form of communication between the people. . Managerial extinction: It was the extinction of large animals, such as the mammoth, some species of horses, and camels. Many experts’ theory is that the extinction was caused by change in climate; when the Ice Age ended, temperatures rose and humidity fell. Others say that the Clevis people might have hunted the animals down to extinction, which eventually lead to the wipe out of themselves. 1. Stationeries migrations: The migrations of the Stationeries speaking people were one of the last migrations to take place In the human history. As It was mostly migrating along the pacific ocean, they used canoes for transportation.
The result was migration to the Philippines, Madagascar, Hawaii and etc. Contrast to the other gyrations, since it was waterborne and hunting – gathering would not be available on the Journey, these people were already living In an agricultural environment before they migrated. 1. “The original affluent society: Because many of the Paleolithic people were living basic necessities. Different to what we think today, Paleolithic societies seldom had more freedom and leisure time as they worked less than the hours required for farming and maintaining a flock of sheep. . Shamans: Paleolithic people had cultures where they had ‘ceremonial’ spaces, connecting them , or separating them from their ordinary life. These ceremonies/ rituals were usually held in deep caves. Although there were no full time religious leaders of specialists, there were shamans who were believed to be skilled with dealing the spirit world. 1. Paleolithic settling down: Changes begun? Began? To take place mostly as the ice age began to end. Tools became smaller and more precise, people began to collect wild grains which led to surplus in food.
Also, some tribes/societies settled down and started to store and preserve goods, which led to even more surplus in food. As food abundance occurred, populations rose and villages grew as well. Up until then, most truckers in society had been fair and equal, but the surplus and diversion of Jobs led to inequality. 1 . End of the last Ice Age: As Ice Age came to an end and climates warmed, Paleolithic life changed to Neolithic life ( meaning new stone age). Populations grew, villages settled down, and humans began to change nature, selecting what they needed.
Coincided with the migration of homo sapiens, this eventually led to the Agricultural Revolution. 2. “Broad spectrum diet”: Living as hunter gatherers for thousands of years, people eventually gained knowledge about the nutrition they needed in order to survive healthily. Somewhat similar to modern times, people learned to eat both big and small animals, the various uses of plants, and so on. Although the “broad spectrum diet” was not particularly developed in the Neolithic era, it became useful for future reference.
Furthermore, researchers suspect that this led to the gender roles, as women were more of the gatherers, they had more knowledge about diets and nutrition, which led them to farm in an agriculture society. 1. Fertile Crescent : The fertile crescent is modern day southwest Asia (Iraq, Syria, Israel, Palestine, Turkey). The land had abundance in the species of plants and animals, which were mostly easy to domesticate. A period of dry and cold weather led to hardship in farming/gathering plants, which eventually was the turning point to agriculture when people started to domesticate animals.
Although the fertile crescent was a packed area at first, later people began to scatter as population increased and soil erosion occurred due to over farming. 1 . Testing : Testing is a pre- genetically modified ancestor of corn ( with a lot less cob than we know it), it is a form of mountain grass that was grown in the Americas. Testing was like the cereals of the fertile crescent, except it had less nutrients. Therefore, it became more altered by humans to provide all the protein. Theory that gradually, through plants and animals’ migrations, farming spread out to other areas.
Opposing to the other theory where humans were the main cause for the expansion of agriculture, diffusion suggested that it was more of an indirect act. 1 . Bantu migration: The Bantu speaking people migrated east and south within Africa. Along with themselves, they migrated with the act of agriculture, their cattle, ironwork, and culture such as languages. Because they were one of the primary Neolithic people, with their migration came diseases to those who had never been in intact with domesticated animals, driving out natives, and killing them. A similar migration would be the Australians’. . Peoples of Australia : Not everyone was keen on the change in lifestyles, Australia went back to hunting- gathering after being introduced to agriculture. Some reasons for that might have been the fact that the area was simply not suitable for agriculture, or that the land was naturally plentiful agriculture would actually be less beneficial. 1 . Banjo: In China, there was an agricultural organization settlement called Banjo. They grew rice, pigs, and dogs. Also, they lived in houses, had storage for surplus food, kept an area for either social or military activity.
They revealed to modern researchers the use of pots and textiles; the remains shows that they produced dishes, pots, cloth and textiles. 1 . “Secondary products revolution” : As people became familiar with domestication, they found more uses for 1 . Pastoral societies: In regions where farming was less beneficial than herding or domesticating animals, societies relied on pasturing/herding/or nomads to sustain their lives. Areas such as the arctic tundra, grasslands and deserts were lands where people were more dependent on the animals, which differed by the region.
Although not all of the pastoral societies were against the agricultural people, there are references, like the bible, which indicate conflict between the two. 1 . “Catafalque” : Catalytically is an early civilization in southern Turkey. People lived in dirt houses, which were stacked on top of the dead. There were no roads in this village, instead people tended to walk on roofs, and entered the houses through them. Unlike most Neolithic villages where some form of discrimination or social statuses existed, Catafalque barely had any, and had less gender roles than others.
Although women were more related to agriculture and men to hunting. 1 . “Stateless societies”: Stateless societies were cultures or societies that were familiar with formal organizations, however, they chose not to select politics. However, they were in contact with neighboring societies, including their religious practices amongst the ruling. Inherited, however, they could rarely dictate over the village. Instead, they trusted their followers [villagers. They also held a religious status, leading important rituals and ceremonies. Organizing the village, the chief maintained his status.