Hygienic Norms and Hospital-Acquired Infections

NR505 Advanced Research Methods

Author (year) Purpose Sample/Number of Participants (provide descriptive statistics) Design Level of Evidence Findings (provide any inferential statistics) Limitations
Apple, M. (2016). The author tries to evaluate the efficiency of infection control plans and the role the adherence or disregard of the basic hygienic standards impacts human waste in the healthcare sector Apple conducts the study among 7 healthcare establishments and compares showings related to patients who are provided with the specific services there. The researcher uses a descriptive design to monitor the state of the environment in a certain organization and admit the impact hygienic norms play in it VI evidence from a descriptive comparison study 4 of 7 hospitals characterized by the disregard of the basic sanitary standards had worse statistics related to patients recovery and well-being. They were also characterized by numerous cases of complications No comparison group to oppose the results of the study
No possible practical applications of the results of this study were suggested.
Sharpe, P., & Schmidt, M. (2011). To investigate the correlation between the disregard of sanitary norms, materials used for surfaces, and the spread of hospital-acquired infections and analyze the efficiency of current hygiene protocols. The researchers explore statistics and data about the materials used for medical surfaces in several health care units. At least 5 hospitals were involved in the paper to prove the credibility of findings. Comparison/descriptive study of the correlation between the materials used for a certain medical surface, its cleaning and the spread of HAI within the suggested healthcare units. VI: evidence from a comparison/
descriptive study
The hospitals that used wood and other organic materials for medical surfaces had poorer results and unsatisfying statistics related to the spread of HAIs and appearance of numerous complications among patients. No educational outcomes are suggested by the researchers. No randomization. There are also no suggestions for the further research of the given topic.
Ozkan. A. (2013). Investigation of the healthcare waste in terms of the current approach to its management that implies the increased attention given to such aspect as hand hygiene and other sanitarian norms. Five different healthcare waste treatment alternatives are evaluated according to two multi-criteria decision-making techniques. Benefits, costs, and risks for the implementation of a certain approach are analyzed Comparison/descriptive study of the above-mentioned five healthcare waste treatment alternatives is conducted to obtain the credible data needed for the comprehensive investigation of the benefits of a certain method. VI: evidence from a comparison/
descriptive study
The results of the study prove the great practical use of the off-site sterilization technique in all cases. Its further usage is suggested. No learning outcomes were measured. The research is also limited by the number of waste treatment alternatives and their possible applications.
Reilly, J., Currie, K., & Madeo, M. (2016). Analysis of the efficiency of interventions that consider the hygienic norms in the healthcare setting to reduce the risk of acquiring infections or development of complications. Experience of IPS R&D members is analyzed when speaking about the role sanitarian norms might play in the recovery process. Single disruptive study of specialists attitudes to hygienic norms and the role they play in decreasing or reducing the risk of the development complications. VI: evidence from a single descriptive study Hand hygiene plays a crucial role in any recovery process and contributes to the improved showings and results related to patients recovery. No learning outcomes were suggested. There is no comparison with the other approaches to increase the state of a healthcare unit.


The research question that is touched upon is “Does the adherence to the hygienic norms in the healthcare setting reduce the risk of acquiring infections or appearance of complications?” All of the papers chosen for the research could be considered credible and useful as they provide the relevant data.

These four studies revolve around the functioning of certain health care units and the role sanitarian norms play in the recovery process. For this reason, the approaches used by researchers are similar. They adhere to the descriptive and comparative designs to obtain the most important data about the current state of a healthcare organization and compare it to some other showings related to other ways explored to guarantee the adherence to the basic sanitarian norms (Apple, 2016; Ozkan. 2013; Reilly, Currie, & Madeo, 2016; Sharpe, P., & Schmidt, 2011)

Altogether, the studies prove the fact that the disregard of hygienic norms has a pernicious impact on the functioning of a certain hospital. Moreover, the comparison of numerous approaches used in different health care units evidences the fact that the exploration of a certain strategy that implies the focus on the consideration of the most important tendencies in the modern healthcare sector could bring benefits and improve the state of any healthcare unit by providing patients with better conditions and environment.

For this reason, the further study of the given issue might help us to develop a certain approach that is needed to improve the state of the sanitarian norms in the majority of modern healthcare establishments and guarantee their efficient functioning that could contribute to the improved quality of life of patients. Hygienic norms remain an important aspect of the modern healthcare sector that should be given great attention to avoid complications or other cases of acquired illnesses.


Apple, M. (2016). Toward a safer and cleaner way dealing with human waste in healthcare. HERD, 9(4), 26-34. Web.

Ozkan. A. (2013). Evaluation of healthcare waste treatment/disposal alternatives by using multi-criteria decision-making techniques. Waste Management and Research, 31(2), 141-149. Web.

Reilly, J., Currie, K., & Madeo, M. (2016). Are you serious? From fist bumping to hand hygiene: Considering culture, context and complexity in infection prevention intervention research. Journal of Infection Prevention, 17(1), 29-33. Web.

Sharpe, P., & Schmidt, M. (2011). Control and mitigation of healthcare-acquired infections: designing clinical trials to evaluate new materials and technologies. HERD, 5(1), 94-115. Web.

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