Hiv Routes Of Transmission Health And Social Care Essay

Human immunodeficiency virus HIV is a lentivirus from retrovirus household that causes a HIV Infections in worlds which alters the immune system in a really terrible manner. HIV causes Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) at the last phase of the infection. The virus attacks immune system which makes people much weaker in contending against infections and assorted terrible diseases1. The chief focal point of this virus on human cells is to destruct the CD4 positive T Cells of the organic structure ‘s immune system. Destruction of CD4 positive T cells makes it worse for the immune system to contend against the infections, which allows life-threatening timeserving infections and more wellness jobs which may take to decease. Human immune system consists of of import cells which are being destroyed by HIV. This leads to moo CD4 count which in bend makes the human organic structure weak in contending against the infections2.

HIV is found in the blood, chest milk, seeds and vaginal fluids of an septic individual. The virus is transmitted from one individual to another through blood to blood and sexual contact. HIV Infected individual ‘s Saliva with blood or any other organic structure fluids can be harmful and infective. HIV can be transmitted in different ways, such as sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, and besides contaminated subcutaneous acerate leafs. In the UK, the most common manner of acquiring HIV is by unprotected sexual intercourse with a individual who is HIV positive. It has shown in the UK statistics 2010 from the Health Protection Agency that 95 % of those diagnosed with HIV Positive due to sexual Contact. This shows that bulk in the UK get infected by HIV is through sexual intercourse which includes vaginal, anal and unwritten sex. This virus enters through the blood stream in different ways like lacerate tegument, oral cavity and eyes liners, and besides through the thin liner of the anus and genitalias. HIV is non transmitted from an septic individual through caressing, caressing, ptyalizing, sharing bath towels or cutter, utilizing the same swimming pool and oral cavity to talk contact1.

From the recent study, it has been shown that the following groups of people are at higher hazard of HIV infection which includes people who are shooting drugs, sex workers every bit Wellss as work forces holding sexual intercourse with men3. There are assorted methods to forestall HIV Transmission in our community through avoiding activities that leads you to dangerous jobs, such as unprotected sex and sharing septic acerate leafs and other assorted shooting equipments1, educating and reding people with HIV positive by the doctors and supplying them the best intervention so that to forestall HIV transmittal in general4. Current UK guidelines on HIV purpose to increase HIV proving in all health care sectors to diminish the sum of undiagnosed HIV infections. It is suggested that HIV trial should be offered to general populace in some sectors and besides to high hazard people in other different sectors ( for illustration, general pattern ) . The Department of wellness ( DH ) asked the National institute of wellness and clinical Excellence ( NICE ) to develop public wellness counsel to increase HIV proving between work forces who have sexual connexions with work forces to cut down undiagnosed infection and besides to forestall HIV transmittal. HIV Testing is one of the most of import factors which helps and guides the full community in UK through reduced HIV transmission5. Harmonizing to the statistics sing HIV, 6000 to 7000 people are diagnosed HIV Positive each twelvemonth in England. This is an of import factor to inquire the full community to concentrate and get the better of this job. Hence, encourage people to prosecute in different methods to forestall HIV transmittal and salvage the community in general with supplying proper consciousness sing HIV6.

One of the most effectual ways to forestall HIV transmittal is through sex that is abstain from sex is the surest method to forestall HIV. If you decide to hold sex so acquire tested foremost to avoid HIV transmittal between you and your partner7. Use of rubber right in sexual activity is the most of import and advantageous point to halt the HIV spread and other infections which are sexually transmitted at every individual clip you have acute sex. Condoms are being marketed in different types of colors, forms, texture and spirits. Male rubbers are made up of latex or polyurethane and female rubbers are besides known as FC2, which is used for vaginal sex only7. Second, usage of merely water-based lubricators can increase sexual pleasance every bit good as safety, merely by adding wet to the vagina or anus during sexual intercourse. Lubricants decreases the hazard of vaginal or anal cryings which can be caused by waterlessness and besides it protects the rubber from rupturing off during sexual activity1. Third, usage of dental dike reduces hazard of sexually transmitted infections. It works as a wall between the oral cavity and vagina during unwritten sex. Fourthly, avoid utilizing septic acerate leafs, panpipes, or spoons which can expose you to HIV and other viruses which are found in the blood1.

Pharmacological Prevention of HIV transmittal is through medical specialties and there are different methods used in forestalling its spread. Antiretroviral therapies ( ARTs ) are used to handle HIV, which prevents viral spread in the organic structure. A combination therapy of antiretroviral or extremely active antiretroviral therapy ( HAART ) is used for the effectual bar of HIV reproduction and transmittal in the organic structure. CD4 count and viral burden blood trial are two of import factors which help the physicians to make up one’s mind on the intervention of that peculiar patient. Treatment is normally starts when the individuals CD4 counts shows below 350, irrespective of their presence or absence of their symptoms1.

Harmonizing to WHO guidelines, it states that ART inductions are really good in forestalling HIV every bit good as clinically, they are more powerful in handling HIV positive patients, when the CD4 count is less than 350 cells/mm3. Viral burden plays the major function in HIV transmittal as it is one of the highest hazard factor in this scenario. When the viral burden is less than 1500 copies/mm3, the hazard of conveying HIV is about nothing as suggested by recent surveies. Evidence shows that the viral burden degrees are decreased by ART, hence bounds HIV transmittal depending on individual ‘s HIV position. WHO guidelines shows that they are chiefly engaged on extinguishing HIV and they strongly suggest that the usage of ART protects the full community which besides includes kids and pregnant adult females by handling and forestalling them from the spread of HIV8. There are different groups of ART medicines to forestall and handle HIV infection1. Virus attaches to the host cell whereby it fuses with the host cell membrane. After the incursion into the host cell, the outer coat of the virus is removed and familial stuff and an enzyme released into the host cell, which is called rearward RNA polymerase, which converts viral RNA to viral DNA, so viral DNA penetrates to the host cell nucleus where by two procedure takes topographic point which includes written text and interlingual rendition takes topographic point which leads to bring forth new virions through peptidase enzyme2. Different antiretroviral medical specialties holding different mark but with one purpose, that is to suppress viral reproduction.

Rearward RNA polymerase inhibitors are of two types that includes nucleoside contrary RNA polymerase inhibitors and non-nucleoside contrary RNA polymerase inhibitors. NRTIs are defective constructing blocks of Deoxyribonucleic acid when they are incorporated into HIV DNA, hence blocks the viral reproduction procedure, by non finishing the Deoxyribonucleic acid Chain. NNRTs bind to the enzyme contrary RNA polymerase and suppress the procedure of viral replication2. NNRTs are used in the intervention or HIV-1 but it is seldom used for HIV-2 in the UK9. Protease Inhibitors are inhibits the procedure of production of viral stuff through interfering with the peptidase enzyme. In the UK, Protease Inhibitors are Entry Inhibitors are inhibitors involved in barricading the virus to adhere with the host cellular membrane that lead to the obstruction of virus into the host cell. Integrase inhibitors are involved in barricading the procedure of integrating of viral familial stuff into the Host DNA by suppressing integrase enzyme.

Microbicides are chemical and pharmacologic substances that are used for destructing some micro-organisms that cause terrible jobs to worlds. Many compounds are being produced and tested their effectivity against microbicidal activity in clinical tests. These merchandises are being produced for vaginal every bit good as rectal applications to protect from HIV infections and other sexually transmitted diseases. Presently, scientists are working on this undertaking in developing microbicides for forestalling HIV transmittals and heighten the degree of patient safety12.

Post-exposure prophylaxis ( PEP ) is ARTs used after the exposure like occupational injuries10 or sexual exposure11 to forestall HIV infection. PEP medicines are non yet proved every bit good as unlicensed in the UK. They are merely supported by experimenting on animate beings. Besides, there are ongoing surveies for pre-exposure prophylaxis where it includes antiretroviral drugs before the exposure to HIV2. Another preventative step against HIV is through Vaccination procedure. Presently, HIV Vaccine is non available but it is one of the on-going research at a really early phase to bring forth effectual HIV Vaccine into the market so that to protect the full community against HIV infection.

Since 1990, surveies have shown that the HIV spread from female parent to kid has been increased every twelvemonth. The Department of Health policy proposing that an HIV Test to be carried out in each and every pregnant adult females and has shown that it has addition consciousness in adult females prior to bringing and it has shown that more than 80 % of the adult females are cognizant in London, 2001 every bit good as it has reduced the figure of babies being infected in the UK13. Antiretroviral interventions ( ART ) are being used in gestation to forestall HIV transmittal from female parent to child. It is suggested that if you are HIV Positive so do non breast feed your kid, as virus transmittal can happen through chest milk1. Overall guidelines and counsel of antiretroviral therapy are being provided to forestall transmittal of HIV from female parent to child14.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis ( PrEP ) in HIV protects healthy people from HIV infection. Current surveies and clinical tests are in the procedure of developing of PrEP to forestall transmittal of HIV. Surveies have shown a lessenings hazard of HIV infection among animate beings that are exposed to ARVs. PrEP has shown its effectivity in “ humanized ” research lab mice in the survey which was conducted in 200715 and besides, ARVs are given to female parents and babies to cut down HIV transimmsion16. The PrEP research surveies uses the drug called tenofovir that is delivered by unwritten path or topical path. It has shown in the four clinical tests that it reduces the hazard of acquiring HIV infection but in the two tests have shown no good response. As of today, there are two on-going surveies that have non yet published their findings on the consequence of HIV transimmision. There are many challenges in relation to safety and effectivity of PrEP inventions. Besides combinations pill called TruvadaA® ( Tenofovir and Emtricitabine ) which was accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) for the intent in HIV intervention in 2004. Truvada, as a PrEP was approved by the FDA in July, 2012 for forestalling from HIV transmittal. Powerful research grounds shows that the PrEP is safe and effectual when used systematically for diminishing the hazard of acquiring HIV sexually17.

In Conclusion, it can be said that there are different paths of HIV transmittal and besides several methods are available to forestall its transmittal. Currently, many surveies are “ traveling on ” to develop new merchandises to forestall and handle HIV patients efficaciously with decreased hazard involved. Besides, public consciousness play a immense function in HIV bar by educating them through assorted resources like chew the fating with them or telephone conversations or supplying proper information on HIV transmittal with its badness. Harmonizing to the recent results of HIV transmittal in the UK, there are assorted factors must be followed by the general populace so that cut down the figure of people by acquiring infected through acquiring sex instruction, attachment to medicines and to avoid unprotected sex or work forces to work forces sex. This can take to healthy long life of our patients and diminish the figure of morbidity and mortality. Centres for Disease control and Prevention stated that about 50,000 people are freshly infected with HIV in the United States each year.18 From the estimations it shows that HIV is one of the terrible issue in our community which can take to decease as it is easy transmitted. Hence, Prevention of HIV transmittal is the most good factor to salvage our community with development of new merchandises which have different pharmacological marks to avoid opposition of the Drug.

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