Healthcare Aspects: Cancer Prevention

Table of Contents

Male breast assessment importance

Many individuals underestimate the importance of male breast assessment, and there is a prejudice that only women have a high level of prevalence of breast cancer. At the same time, people do not have a clear understanding that male breast cancer exists (Al-Naggar & Al-Naggar, 2012). Nonetheless, in medical practice, male breast assessment is as significant as female one. One of the basic and easy methods and approaches is self-examination, and it is revealed that males are aware of this practice (Al-Naggar & Al-Naggar, 2012). Apart from being easy, this assessment helps discover the first signs of cancer and address it promptly. For example, it can identify any lumps in breasts (Al-Naggar & Al-Naggar, 2012). After that, patients will have to be examined with various screening methods and seek medical assistance. Overall, the male breast assessment is highly important, as it can decrease the overall mortality and morbidity rates among men.

Breast cancer screening importance, education

Breast cancer screening is one of the vital procedures to ensure women’s health and safety. The primary goal of this section is to identify cancer at its initial stage and prevent it from the development in the recent future (Elobaid, Aw, Grivna, & Nagelkerke, 2014). At the same time, this type of screening is vital due to a high level of prevalence of this cancer worldwide. Nowadays, healthcare introduces a variety of screening approaches that include clinical and self-examination and mammography with the help of evidence-based practice (Elobaid et al., 2014). Apart from an extended variety of procedures, the levels of morbidity and mortality remain high due to the lack of awareness. In this instance, organizing different sessions and showing the process of self-examination to women from different age groups can be discovered as one of the ways to reduce mortality rates and decrease the spread of breast cancer worldwide.

Health literacy

Today, health literacy is one of the most significant aspects in the medical sphere. This phenomenon can be defined as the ability of an individual to have a clear understanding of different health conditions and the need for certain healthcare services in different situations (Johnson, 2014). Apart from the paramount importance of health in the modern world, the issue continues to exist due to the lack of health education. For example, in Australia, more than half of the population (59%) of the population does not have the appropriate level of literacy (Johnson, 2014). This high percentage exists due to the absence of interesting educational sessions and personal abilities of the individuals. In this case, the nurses can be discovered as the most critical actors. They can not only provide the required healthcare services but also increase the awareness of patients and minimize the negative consequences of the health illiteracy among individuals of different ages and genders.

Problems with shadow health program

Shadow health program attempts to educate students by creating realistic scenarios that can take place in the medical sphere. Nonetheless, it has some issues. Apart from the lack of physical contact with the patients, another drawback is the fact that sessions with virtual patients are often associated with a high level of fatigue (Sobocan, Turk, Dinevsky, Hojs, & Balon, 2017). At the same time, the implementation of this software is expensive, as it is necessary to install the program sufficiently to avoid technical problems in the recent future. The related software bugs can decrease the speed of the educational process while having high maintenance costs. Alternatively, the study reveals that this program does not improve diagnostic thinking skills or students’ knowledge (Sobocan et al., 2017). Based on the analysis of the problems conducted above, the management of the nursing school has to consider all issues carefully before the implementation of the program.

Circumcision assessment myths, facts, and education

There are many myths about circumcision. For example, this procedure may cause sexual dysfunction in future. The research finds counterarguments by stating that this surgery is used to reduce premature ejaculation (Schenker & Westreich, 2015). Another myth states that this procedure is rather simple and does not have any negative effects on male’s health. Nonetheless, the fact clearly shows that the procedure is serious, and it may have adverse consequences including infection and sexual dysfunction. Alternatively, another myth portrays that circumcision assists in preventing HIV (Schenker & Westreich, 2015). The medical practice uses circumcision to decrease the prevalence of HIV, but it does not guarantee the complete safety of the patients (Schenker & Westreich, 2015). These myths tend to exist due to the lack of education, and different training has to be introduced to both medical professionals and patients to increase safety and help understand negative and positive outcomes of circumcision.

Anus and rectum assessment consideration while implementing it

Anus and rectum assessment has a number of aspects to be considered during the implementation, as, otherwise, the examination may cause discomfort and question the effectiveness of diagnosis. The process is represented by both palpation and physical inspection (Berman et al., 2014). Having sterile gloves and lubricant, introducing oneself, and considering the age of the patient are the most important preparation aspects (Berman et al., 2014). They will help avoid tensions and conduct the sufficient examination. Another matter that has to be considered is placing a patient in the right position to avoid conflicts and pain during assessment. In the case of any discomfort or pain, the physician has to terminate the process and continue with the subsequent medical treatment (Berman et al., 2014). At the same time, it is necessary to discover any abnormalities such as ulcers or cracks, as it will present the symptoms of a particular disease (Berman et al., 2014).


Al-Naggar, R., & Al-Naggar, D. (2012). Perceptions and opinions about male breast cancer and male breast self-examination: A qualitative study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13(1), 243-256.

Berman, A., Snyder, S., Kozier, B., Erb, G., Levett-Jones, T., Hales, M., … Stanley, D. (2014). Kozier & Erb’s fundamentals of nursing. Melbourne, Australia: Pearson Higher Education.

Elobaid, Y., Aw, T., Grivna, M., & Nagelkerke, N. (2014). Breast cancer screening awareness, knowledge, and practice among Arab women in the United Arab Emirates: A cross-sectional survey. PLoS Online, 9(9), 1-9.

Johnson, A. (2014). Health literacy, does it make a difference? Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(3), 39-45.

Schenker, I., & Westreich, M. (2015). Voluntarily medical male circumcision: A necessary surgical intervention in curbing HIV/AIDS. The Bulletin, 97(9), 378-381.

Sobocan, M., Turk, N., Dinevsky, D., Hojs, R., & Balon, B. (2017). Problem-based learning in internal medicine: Virtual patients or paper-based problems? Internal Medicine Journal, 47(1), 99-103.

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