Environmental Valuation Of Bako National Park Environmental Sciences Essay

‘Marketing Malaysia as a finish of excellence and to do the touristry industry a major subscriber to the socio-economic development of the state ‘
This is Tourism Malaysia ‘s mission statement. It has been 37 old ages that Tourism Malaysia aims to promote the growing of touristry which will besides lend to state ‘s economic development and quality of life. The authorities began to take touristry earnestly in the late eightiess. Malaysia has launched ‘Visit Malaysia Year ‘ as the selling run in 1990, which contributed 54 % addition in international tourer reachings for that twelvemonth. The figure of visitants supports on increasing since so. Chart 1 below shows the tendency of tourer reachings and grosss to the state for the past 10 old ages.
There was a rapid growing in both tourer reachings and grosss till the figure slowed down in the 2002 an 2003. This was due to worldwide frights of terrorist act, September 11 onslaught on the WTC in New York, followed by bird grippe diseases and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ( SARS ) onslaught. However the tendency continues to increase despite reverses in the undermentioned old ages till present which amounting to 22 million of tourer reachings and RM 49,561.2 million in grosss for 2008. At the minute, touristry is the state ‘s 3rd largest beginning of foreign exchange net incomes after fabrication and oil.

Malaya, being situated within the tropical part, has many nature-based touristry attractive forces, for illustrations, caves, waterfalls, hot springs, beaches, coral reefs, mountains, and birds and wildlife sanctuaries. For these grounds, the authorities is really acute in advancing these nature-based attractive forces. To conserve these nature-based attractive forces, the authorities has established a web of protected countries for the preservation of biological diverseness.
Malaysia has ever been recognized to be one of the richest biodiversity in the universe. This is in line with the National Policy on Biological Diversity whose vision is to “ transform Malaysia into a universe Centre of excellence in preservation, research and use of tropical biological diverseness by the twelvemonth 2020 ” ( MoSTE, 1998 ) .
The World Conservation Union ( IUCN ) has defined national park as natural country of land and/or sea, designated to a ) protect the ecological unity of one or more ecosystems for present and future coevalss, B ) exclude development or business unfriendly ( harmful ) to the intents of appellation of the country, and degree Celsius ) provide a foundation for religious, instruction, recreational and visitant chances, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible ( IUCN, 1994 ) .
These national Parkss are established for the intent of saving, hence leting and encouraging entree for instruction, diversion and touristry intents.
The direction of touristry in sing the natural countries is complicated in Malaysia. Authority for assorted natural resources is randomly divided under different authorities umbrellas and several province governments ( Hall, 1994 ) . In Peninsular Malaysia, tellurian protected countries are chiefly managed by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks ( DWNP ) and the Department of Forestry. The Marine protected countries are managed by the Federal Marine Parks Section under the Ministry of Natural resources and the Environment. In Sabah, the tellurian protected countries are managed by Sabah Parks, Sabah Wildlife Department, Sabah Forestry Department and Sabah Foundation, while all the Marine protected countries are managed by Sabah Parks. In the instance of Sarawak, all tellurian and marine protected countries are managed by the Sarawak Forestry Corporation.
Malaysia has 30 gazetted national Parkss which inclusive of 6 Marine Parkss. There are 8 national Parkss located in Peninsular Malaysia, 7 are in Sabah and 15 are in Sarawak. A sum-up of the national Parkss in Malaysia is in Table 1.
Table 1: List of National Parks in Malaysia
Date established
Size ( hour angle ) /area
Peninsular Malaya
Taman Negara National Park, within 3 province boundaries of
Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu
434,300 hectares
Largest in the state
Canopy walk
Wildlife observation
Endau-Rompin National Park,
Johor-Pahang boundary line
49,000 hectares
Rock formation
Sandstone tableland
Tropical wood
Tanjung Piai Johor National Park, Johor
Coastal Rhizophora mangle
Bird observation and fishing
Penang National Park, Penang
2,562 hectares
Meromictic lake
Coral reefs
Turtle nesting beaches
Payar Marine Park, Kedah
Screens 2 maritime stat mis of 4 islands
Coral reefs
Marine life
Scuba diving
Redang Marine Park, Terengganu
25 square kilometer
Coral reefs
Marine life
Scuba diving
Tioman Marine Park, Pahang
39 kilometer long and 12 kilometers broad
Coral reefs
Marine life
Scuba diving
Mersing Marine Park, Johor
White beaches
Coral reefs
North borneo
Crocker Range National Park
Assorted dipterocarp forest
Montane forest
Pulau Tiga Park
Coral reefs
Beach forest
Kinabalu Park
4,101 meters above sea degree
Mount mounting
Tunku Abdul Rahman Park
Beach forest
Turtle Island Park
Turtle nesting beach
Tawau Hills Park
27,972 hectare
Bako National Park
The oldest park
Heath forest
Open scrubland
Kubah National Park
The universe of thenar
Montane forest
Assorted dipterocarp forest
Heath forest
Gunung Gading National Park
Home of rafflesia
Montane forest
Assorted dipterocarp forest
Batang Ai national Park
Home of orang utan
Assorted dipterocarp forest
Riparian wood
Regenerated forest
Tanjung Datu National Park
The smallest park
Assorted dipterocarp forest
Beach forest
Niah National Park
The archaeological site of Sarawak
Assorted dipterocarp forest
Limestone forest flora
Heath forest
Lambir Hills National Park
The virgin rain forest of Sarawak
Assorted dipterocarp forest
Heath forest
Gunung Mulu National park
The biggest cave chamber in the universe
Assorted dipterocarp forest
Limestone forest flora
Montane forest
Similajau National Park, Bintulu
Where the rapids meet the sea
Assorted dipterocarp forest
Beach forest
Mangrove forest
Talang-Satang National Park
Sarawak ‘s polo-neck islands
Marine polo-neck preservation
Bukit Tiban National Park, Bintulu
Conservation and research presentation
Water-based diversion
Wildlife watching
Jungle trekking
Maludam National Park, Sri Aman
Peat swamp
The last feasible ruddy banded langur population ( monkey )
Rajang Mangroves National Park, Sarikei
The Rhizophora mangle ecosystem
Mangrove forest
Gunung Buda National Park
The newest national park
Limestone forest
Loagan Bunut National Park
The largest natural lake
Peat swamp wood
Assorted dipterocarp forest
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.malaysiamydestination.com
Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment, 2006
In this survey, the range is limited to the tellurian protected country i.e. national park country, which is the most recognizable class of protected countries. As diversion is one of the grounds of the appellation of these national park countries, they are view as the of import subscriber to the touristry industry.
Sarawak National Parks
Modern Parkss and militias were established in the late 1800s. With this, Sarawak attempts began with the being of the National Park Ordinance in 1956 and the constitution of a Board of Trustees to administrate this. In 1973, there is a alteration in the disposal of national Parkss, where the Board of Trustees is replaced by the Conservator of Forests. Since so, Sarawak Forestry Corporation has been charged with the duty of implementing the regulation. Sarawak Forestry Corporation managed all 15 tellurian and marine Parkss in Sarawak province which covers the entire country of 184,922 hour angle.
The aims of the National Parks and Wildlife Division ( NPWD ) are: –
To set up and pull off the National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, nature Militias, Forest Parks and other tantamount militias throughout Sarawak.
To supply recreational and other installations in National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, nature Militias, Forest Parks and other tantamount militias.
To develop an effectual promotion and extension service on nature preservation.
To set about research in the ecology, saving and extension of wildlife and their natural home ground.
There are four subdivisions within the NPWD, viz. Parks and Nature Reserves Branch, Wildlife Branch, Planning & A ; Development subdivision and Interpretation & A ; Conservation Education Branch. The chief duties of Parks and Reserves Branch include overall direction of all Parkss and militias. The Wildlife Branch chief activities are wildlife direction and research. These include home ground direction, confined genteelness, species direction veterinary, enforcement and licensing. The research is chiefly on Primatess, big and little mammals, birds, reptilians and amphibious vehicles. The Planning and Development Branch is responsible to pull off the Planning and Investigation Unit and the Design and Implementation Unit. Last, the Interpretation and Conservation Education Branch is responsible for four units which are Interpretation Unit, Conservation Education and Extension Unit, Research Unit and Administration Unit.
Bako National Park ( BNP ) was the first to be gazetted as a protected country on 1 May 1957 among all the 15 national Parkss in Sarawak. It is located 37 kilometres to the E of the capital metropolis of Kuching. Covering an country or 2727 hectares of a rugged sand rock, in the map, BNP is at the tip of the Muara Tebas peninsular. It was merely until 1985, the route from Kuching to BNP was completed and in order to entree to the park, it requires a short express boat journey of about 25 proceedingss ride along the Bako River. BNP is one of the smallest national Parkss in Sarawak, yet recorded as one of the highest rate of visitants to day of the month. BNP is celebrated for its rain forest, forest wildlife, jungle watercourses, waterfalls, works life, secluded beaches and trekking trails. The jungle trekking trails are good maintained web of 16 colour-coded walking trails, from easy ambles, full twenty-four hours treks to overnight bivouacing expeditions which allows the visitants to acquire to the most out of its alone environment.
The undermentioned tabular array provides inside informations of trekking journey in BNP.
Name of trail
Trail length
( kilometer )
One manner clip & A ; Distance from HQ
Colour Code
Tanjung Sapi
30 proceedingss ( 0.8km )
Telok Paku
1 hr ( 1.2 kilometer )
Ulu Assam
1 A? hours ( 1.4km )
Telok Delima
45 proceedingss ( 1km )
Telok Pandan Besar
1 hr ( 1.75km )
Telok Pandan Kecil
1 A? hours ( 2.5km )
1 A? hours ( 2.2km )
3 A? hours return
2 A? hours ( 3.5km )
Tanjung Rhu
2 A? hours ( 4.2km )
Bukit Keruing
3 A? hours ( 5.5km )
Paya Jelutong
3 A? hours ( 5.7km )
Bukit Gondol
4 A? hours ( 7.7km )
Ulu Serait
3 hours ( 4.8km )
Telok Sibur
3 A? hours ( 5.3km )
Telok Limau
7 hours ( 10km )
Telok Kruin
7 A? hours ( 10.5km )
Pa ‘ Amit ( Lakei Island )
30 proceedingss ( from Base )
Revised Fess and Accommodation Charges
Effective 1 July 2002
Entrance Fees
Visitor Category
Single Entry ( per individual )
Multiple Entry
( Non-transferable )
( per individual )
5-Entry Base on balls
( Movable valid for 1 individual )
1-month cogency
3-months cogency
Student/Senior Citizen/Disabled individual
Assorted Group*
Child, 6 old ages and below
Type of accomodation
Rate per dark
No. of units available
Forest Lodge, Type 5
2 suites with 3 individual beds each
Non-air conditioned
Fan merely
Shared bathroom and lavatory
RM100+ per room
RM150+ per house
Forest Lodge, Type 6
2 suites with 2 individual beds each
Non-air conditioned
Fan merely
Attached bathroom and lavatory
RM50+ per room
RM75+ per house
Forest Hostel
4 suites with 4 individual beds each
Non-air conditioned
Fan merely
Shared bathroom and lavatory
RM15+ per bed
RM40+ per room
Camp site ( bivouacing equipment is non provided )
Public bathrooms and lavatories
RM5 per individual
18 sites
+ Plus 5 % authorities service revenue enhancement
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.forestry.sarawak.gov.my
Rules and Regulations
The regulations and ordinances are at that place to protect the park for the benefits of visitants.
It is an offense to: –
Enter without a license ;
Kill, gaining control, toxicant or upset any animate being ;
Cut, take, destruct or put fire to any object ; life or inanimate, dead or alive,
Introduce any animate being or works onto the park ;
Damage, erect any edifice or other constructions ;
The minimal mulct for the above offenses is RM1,000 and six months imprisonment.
Visitors must obtain a certified license before come ining the national Parks, nature Militias or Wildlife Centre from the nearest engagement offices. For professional movie shapers and those transporting out expeditions, a particular permission from the Sarawak State Secretary must be acquired in progress.
Exclusion of liabilities:
Any individual sing Sarawak ‘s national Parkss, nature militias and wildlife Centres enter at their ain hazard. The license to come in is granted capable to the status that the Forest Department and/or the State Government and/or Officer shall non be responsible for any physical, mental or emotional hurt sustained, or any loss of life, or belongings or whatsoever sort within these countries. The State Government of it Officer disclaims any act ( s ) or skip nevertheless caused or originate within these countries.
Economic Evaluation of Environment
Policy shapers in developed states have realized that it is of import to take into history the economic rating in the procedure of determination devising. However, in developing state like Malaysia, the rating of environmental good is regarded as unfamiliar. Though researches sing this issue in Malaysia published are found to be rare, the determination proved that our state besides give values on environmental goods.
Economic rating refers to the measuring on footings of money values to non-marketed goods and services. Non-marketed goods and services include those which can non be straight bought and sold in the unfastened market topographic point.
Goods and services which have economic value contribute positively to human well-being. This is determined by the penchants of the persons which show the degree of satisfaction. These penchants can be revealed in the context of willingness to pay ( WTP ) . On the contrary, human well-being will besides necessitate to digest with the unwanted values which revealed in the context of willingness to accept ( WTA ) .
Economic rating technique aims to find the entire economic value ( TEV ) . TEV identifies the alterations in human well-being that accrue from a alteration in the proviso of the good. These values may accrue to users and non users. The illustrations for this would be the willingness to pay for the saving of the forest in the national park and the preservation of endangered species like the proboscis monkey, even though the person may non hold seen the species while in the national park.
TEV is made up of the amount of usage and non-use value. Use values may be direct or indirect. An illustration for this would be a wood in a national park. Visitors to the forest brand direct usage of it and the fact that the forest protecting the water parting of the part is an illustration of an indirect usage. A non-use value, besides known as inactive usage values, is when persons are willing to pay even though they make no direct usage of it.
There are two methods in gauging the economic values of non-marketed goods and services which are revealed penchants ( RP ) and stated penchants ( SP ) . RP and SP can be use to gauge the usage value, nevertheless non-use values can merely be estimated by SP techniques. RP is exercised when the penchant of the persons is revealed by their buying wont in the existent market, which is price-based. In contrast, SP measures the demand of goods and services which do non hold market monetary value as they are non straight sold. Normally, the study would inquire on how much money would persons are WTP or WTA to bask the benefit of the goods and services, for illustration, the being of the environment.
Property market ( WTP )
Labour market ( WTA )
Contingent ranking
Contingent ( conjoint ) evaluation
Choice experiments
Paired comparings
Market monetary values ( WTP )
Contingent rating ( WTP/WTA )
Choice modeling ( WTP/WTA )
Debaring behavior ( WTP )
Random utility/ distinct pick theoretical accounts ( WTP )
Hedonic pricing
Travel cost method ( WTP )
Benefit transportation
Stated Preferences
conjectural markets
does response/production maps
Entire Economic Value
Non-use Value
Use Value
Revealed Preferences
conventional and proxy
Figure 1 Economic rating techniques
Developed states every bit good as the developing states have accepted that environmental goods can be measured utilizing several methods. In developed states, the methods used are beforehand where they have applied the usage of benefit transportation into their researches. However in Malaysia, the most common is CVM and merely late CM was adopted in researches done byaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..
Revealed penchants technique
Stated penchant technique
SP technique which ask conjectural inquiries, are categorized into contingent rating ( CV ) and multi-attribute rating ( MAV ) ( Anna Merino-Castello, 2003 ) .
Contingent Valuation ( CV )
CV measures the WTP through direct inquiries such as “ How much are you willing to pay? ‘ and ‘Are you willing to pay RMx? ‘ . The former estimates the single penchants utilizing the open-ended method which is penchant based. The latter inquiry estimates the single penchants utilizing the referendum or dichotomous pick evocation. The respondents are merely given the option of replying yes or no, which is choice-based. This implies the premise of random public-service corporation map where the coefficients value are obtained through the appraisal of binary logit utilizing the maximal likelihood process.
However, an increasing figure of empirical surveies revealed that dichotomous pick consequences seemed to be significantly larger that open-ended values, perchance due to ‘yeah-saying ‘ ( Hanley et al. , 2001 ) . Both open-ended and dichotomous CV attacks have restrictions in gauging values. These restrictions are:
1. merely one property to be valued by respondent
2. respondents are improbable to give accurate response for conjectural market
3. May bring on some respondents to act strategically when public goods are involved
Due to these restrictions, researches in rating of non-use value exchanging to the option stated penchant technique which is MAV. The chief difference between CV and MAV is that CV analyses one property of the merchandise at a clip whilst MAV analyses more than one property at the same time. This includes whether the properties are attached to one another or a trade-offs between them.
Choice Modelling ( CM )
Similar to CV, MAV can be categorized into preference-based and choice-based method. In preference-based, the respondents are required to rate or rank each alternate merchandise in conjectural and existent market.
On the other manus, in choice-based method, the respondents need to take one among several options merchandises which is more realistic because the respondents execute this mundane as a consumer taking a series of viing merchandises. In preference-based, the respondents does non necessitate doing any committedness to take a peculiar option, hence this is the ground why choice-based method is more preferable than preference-based attack.
Preference-based method is by and large termed as conjoint analysis ( CA ) which comprises of contingent evaluation and paired comparing while choice-based method globally termed as pick mold ( CM ) which comprises of contingent ranking and pick experiment.
CA and CM are differentiated by the signifier of the public-service corporation map. CA use a deterministic public-service corporation map and CM use the random public-service corporation map. Deterministic public-service corporation map is assumed to be related to an person ‘s evaluation via a transmutation map o :
Uij = o [ Vij ( Xij ) ]
This information is estimated utilizing ordinary least squares ( OLS ) arrested development techniques which implies the premise of the cardinality of evaluations graduated table ( Bateman et al, 2002 ) . In contrast, CM usage random public-service corporation map which represents the incorporate behavioural theory of determination behaviour and is composed of a deterministic constituent Vij and s stochastic Iµij:
Uij = Vij ( Xij ) + Iµij
This random public-service corporation theory ( RUT ) leads to the distinct pick theoretical accounts which describes the behaviour of respondents ‘ pick chances in response to alterations in properties that step differences across other respondents. This information is estimated utilizing the maximal likeliness method. All these four methods in multi-attribute rating differ in the quality of information they generate, in their grade of complexness and besides in their ability to bring forth WTP estimations that can be shown to be consistent with the usual steps of public assistance ( Bateman et al, 2002 ) .
In contingent evaluation, respondents are presented with a figure of events one at a clip and are asked to rate each one separately in a numeral graduated table. The evaluation is so transformed into public-service corporation graduated table. This indirect public-service corporation map is assumed to be related to respondents ‘ evaluation via a transmutation map which leads to a typical analyzed utilizing OLS arrested development technique. As mentioned before, this implies strong premises of cardinality of evaluation graduated tables. This is inconsistent with the consumer theory. Hence, contingent evaluation does non bring forth public assistance consistent value estimations.
In mated comparing, respondents are asked to take their preferable alternate out of a set of two picks and to find their penchant in a numeral graduated table. The public-service corporation map is besides estimated utilizing OLS.
In a contingent ranking, respondents are required to rank a set of alternate options from most to least preferable. Each option has two or more properties, which are offered at different degrees across options. The respondents are required to rank their options. One of the options must be the current executable pick set of the respondent. The ground is, if the position quo is non included, the respondents may be forced to take the options which they non prefer at all. This rank order informations is estimated utilizing maximal likelihood process.
In pick experiment, respondents are given a series of options and are required to bespeak their most preferable option. The baseline option, which is the position quo, need to be included in each of the pick set. This experiment gives welfare consistent estimations because,
1. the respondents needs to tradeoff alterations in property degrees against the cost of doing these alterations
2. the respondents can take the position quo
3. we can stand for the econometric technique used in a manner which is precisely parallel to the theory of rational and probabilistic pick.
4. we can deduce estimations of counterbalancing and tantamount excess.
This conditional logit theoretical account can be estimated utilizing the maximal likelihood process.

myhomeworkgeeks (28431)
New York University

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