Create a 4 pages page paper that discusses water supply situation. The World Bank and USAID have been involved in the water supply sectors of the given countries to a large extent. hence they provide credible and reliable data on the water supply situations in these countries and thus justify the use of these sources.Improvement of Water Provision in SomaliaIntroductionWater provision is a serious problem in most developing countries, and it is even a worse scenario in Somalia. This is a country that has been war-ravaged for the last two decades. To generate effective recommendations for water provision in Somalia, it is first necessary to establish the water supply situation, and then compare water provision systems that are considerably effective in countries with a similar situation like Somalia’s. This study explores the water provision solutions that have been implemented in Mozambique and Ghana and use them to generate recommendations for the water supply crisis in Somalia.Water Supply Situation in SomaliaAccording to the Advanced Blue Revolution Initiative, Somalia lacks an official water supply and sanitation system (ABRI 2009, p. 1). A large population obtains water from boreholes and shallow wells. The shallow wells are usually located near settlements, and the condition of this water is alarming due to nearly latrines seeping health hazards to groundwater. cholera and diarrhea outbreaks are common, and ABRI statistics indicate that less than 29% of the population has access to clean and sustainable water sources. It might be necessary to point out that the urban water supply system that existed in Somalia before degeneration into conflict was already constrained, poorly funded and mismanaged, and became inoperable after the civil crisis. This is the basis that informs the choice of comparison countries. Mozambique has an experience of nearly 20 years in the war, and Ghana is muted as a model for other developing countries in efforts to curb most of their challenging problems.Water Supply Infrastructure in MozambiqueA brief background on Mozambique’s water provision system indicates that it was rendered useless after a 20-year war (1974-94), by the end of which only approximately 30% of the population had access to clean and reliable water supply according to the International Development Association (IDA 2007, P. 14). After the war, the Mozambique government pursued a delegated management framework (public-private partnership) for its water supply system and cooperated with international aid agencies for capacity-building. In the framework still in place to date, the government owns the water provision assets while the private sector manages the operations.A closer look at the water provision strategy indicates that those who were charged with the responsibility of water supply and management were made to understand all the underlying issues. The National Directorate of Water ministry was reformed, and the workforce trained to manage huge and efficient sustainable water supply systems both urban and rural. Formal/official bodies were set up. a regulatory body and an asset-holding body to streamline water provision and involve the private sector in the management of water provision. The private sector invested heavily in water supply and thus big water supply projects tapping into the available water sources and efficient provision systems were set up. In several cities, large rehabilitation works could thus take off, with several cities now able to claim all-day round water supply. The government seeks to maintain a balance between consumer and commercial interests.Water Supply System in Rural GhanaInformation on Ghana indicates that, in the mid-90s, the country faced a water provision crisis, with only 35% of the population accessing clean water. Water-related diseases such as diarrhea, skin diseases, and intestinal worms were in the top five of the most debilitating ailments in the country. The government’s approach was based on the involvement of the community in water management. In this strategy, the government (and financial and aid partners) provided the capital to establish community water provision and sanitation systems that are effective in their specific cases (IDA 2007, p. 12).The government-community approach has resulted in over 2000 communities managing water and sanitation provision systems that they formulated and took part in building. At the interface (government and community) is the Community Water and Sanitation Agency, which is the official body charged with management and coordination of the strategy at the national level. The program of funding utilizes a large scale decentralized model through which grants for water provision systems are supplied to the communities and schools through the respective District Assemblies. Massive 3000 water provision committees and 41 water boards were formed and have received the necessary water provision training to balance community ideas with the proven policy in community water projects and sanitation systems.Recommendations for SomaliaRather than choose one water provision system over another, the strengths from both can be integrated to suggest an effective water supply system for Somalia. The points that can be highlighted from the two are. cooperation between the government and the private sector as well as the community. For professionalism, the government is given an oversight role while experts are left to manage. Training should be carried out and ensure water management is in capable hands as well as balance commercial interests with consumer interests. Other issues to sensitize key stakeholders on including the importance of a framework for water provision and water supply based on the available resources (though nationally managed, systems are based on what is locally available). Based on these ideas, the following are the recommendations for Somalia:1. A government-community framework should be established for water provision (in light of the absence of a formidable private sector). The transitional government should empower the community to manage water supply systems such that the instability does not affect this essential service whether or not the rebels interrupt government efforts.2. Adequate and proper training in water provision and sanitation should be undertaken for those in charge of water provision. Water provision policy-making cannot be left to individuals without requisite knowledge.3. Water supply cannot be delinked from sanitation. A long term intervention should be aimed at winding down the community wells and drilling boreholes in safe distances from the sanitation facilities, with accompanied proper supply systems to compensate for the distance. The short term intervention entails proper treatment of water drawn from these wells before it is ready for use.4. Water provision should be pegged on available resources. While boreholes and wells are ideal deep in the mainland, the many coastal towns can benefit from treatment systems such as desalting of seawater.5. It is obvious that some of the interventions require massive capital outlay. hence the transitional government should seek assistance from financial partners and development agencies while at the same time working towards a solution to the country’s political crisis.
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