Cancer in Women and Prophylactic Measures

Cancer is one of the most frequent and terrible diseases that women may have globally. The cells of cancer may kill any human organ in a short period of time, and 23% of all cancer cases include breast and ovarian cancer (Onermair, Youlden, Baade, & Janda, 2014). Such statistical data proves the necessity to investigate this disease and think about preventive measures. In the article by Villella et al. (2006), several recommendations for ovarian cancer prophylaxis are discussed to evaluate the role of hysterectomy. Due to a small number of patients with subsequent gynecologic malignancy, it is hard to rely on the results of the study described in this article and use them in practice. There is a possibility to believe in the necessity of screening for benign gynecological indications that may lead to a hysterectomy. These are the main “take-away” thoughts from the article written by Villella et al. that is chosen for the analysis.

Several ethical dilemmas are discovered. For example, the relationship between carcinoma of a fallopian tube and BRCA1/2 mutations has to be considered (Villella et al., 2006). With time, new evidence and statistics are used to question the quality of these relationships, creating some doubts concerning the necessity of having a prophylactic hysterectomy as the only method to prevent cancer in women. Another ethical concern is the age of patients and the possibility of childbearing. Women have to understand the outcomes of such surgery and make their final decisions regarding this factor and the inability to have children. For example, the situation when a 50-year-old woman chooses hysterectomy to protect herself against cancer, relying on personal experience, numerous evaluations, and family conditions differs considerably from the situation when a 20-year-old female uses hysterectomy as a means to avoid health complications without thinking about her future and her options. Finally, there is a statement that the removal of the tubes and ovaries cannot provide patients with a 100%-guarantee to avoid carcinoma (Villella et al., 2006). Women have to understand the impact of this statement and the impossibility to avoid the disease as soon as this type of surgery is used as the main intervention.

Patients who have strong family histories of ovarian cancer are in need of clear explanations about available screenings, interventions, and options. Laparoscopy and colonoscopy can be offered to patients with health insurance (Lee et al., 2017). If patients have no insurance, it is possible to take free blood tests and be checked for special cancer markers. Cancer is the disease that may infect several organs fast, and patients have to be educated about the possibility of remission, the importance of follow-ups, and the necessity to visit special cancer groups to receive assistance in time.

References

Lee, K. C., Lin, H., ChangChien, C. C., Fu, H. C., Tsai, C. C., Wu, C. H., & Ou, Y. C. (2017). Difficulty in diagnosis and different prognoses between colorectal cancer with ovarian metastasis and advanced ovarian cancer: An empirical study of different surgical adoptions. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 56(1), 62-67. Web.

Onermair, A.R., Youlden, D., Baade, P., & Janda, M. (2014). The impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy on survival in patients with a history of breast cancer – A population-based data linkage study. International Journal of Cancer, 134(9), 2211-2222. Web.

Villella, J.A., Parmar, M., Donohue, K., Fahey, C., Piver, M.S., & Rodabaugh, K. (2006). Role of prophylactic hysterectomy in patients at high risk for hereditary cancers. Gynecologic Oncology, 102(2006), 475-479. Web.

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