CAN YOU DO THIS FOR ME REPLY TO 2 OTHER CLASSMATES THREADS.EACH REPLY MUST BE A MINIMUM OF 200 WORDS AND INCLUDE AT LEAST 2 SCHOLARLY RESOURCES.The RepliesYou will be required to write substantive replies to a minimum of 2 other classmates’ threads. Each reply must be a minimum of 200 words and include at least 2 scholarly resources. Acceptable sources include the textbook, the Bible, outside scholarly articles, etc.Substantive replies, in contrast to perfunctory replies, add value to the forum, enhance learning, and contain references to any new concepts or ideas presented.The following suggestions will aid you in successfully composing substantive responses:· Compare/contrast the findings of others with your research.· Compare how the findings of others relate/add to the concepts learned in the required readings.· Share additional knowledge regarding the key topic that relates to the thread.Plagiarism will not be tolerated. Review your posts and the Student Expectations prior to submission in order to ensure that your sources are properly cited. The RepliesYou will be required to write substantive replies to a minimum of 2 other classmates’ threads. Each reply must be a minimum of 200 words and include at least 2 scholarly resources. Acceptable sources include the textbook, the Bible, outside scholarly articles, etc.Substantive replies, in contrast to perfunctory replies, add value to the forum, enhance learning, and contain references to any new concepts or ideas presented.The following suggestions will aid you in successfully composing substantive responses:· Compare/contrast the findings of others with your research.· Compare how the findings of others relate/add to the concepts learned in the required readings.· Share additional knowledge regarding the key topic that relates to the thread.Plagiarism will not be tolerated. Review your posts and the Student Expectations prior to submission in order to ensure that your sources are properly cited.1ST REPLY…… Renee McCormick Discussion Board: Radio Frequency Identification Tags Technology now provides the ability for businesses to track their inventory in real-time. Using technology originating from World War 2 in identifying enemy aircraft, radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags have evolved into an important tool within inventory control management systems (Kumari, Narsaiah, Grewal, & Anurag, 2015). Organizations use the embedded integrated circuit chip on their items to monitor through production processes and their exact storage locations. RFID tags have the advantage of barcode tracking as the tags do not require visual confirmation, can be hidden in items, and provide more information. RFID readers allow a quick response of data at greater distances without a physical paper trail. The topic of RFID tags is an academic curiosity as well as professional interest. Understanding the potential use of RFID technology would assist during the anticipation of a new inventory management system and potentially provide value to the project. ComparisonRegardless of the application, RFID tags monitor items and provide the user information programed within the chip. Use of this technology continues to expand from automatic toll collections, library book management, theft prevention, and tracking animals. Through the research of RFID tags, the potential of this technology continues to advance. Overall, research agrees RFID provides a higher level of visibility while reducing operational costs wherever it is applied (Wang, Hu, & Zhou, 2017). Meredith and Shafer (2016) describe two different classifications of tags being passive and active. The passive tag does not include a power source and depends on the RFID reader to access the information. The active tag contains a battery to transmit the information. A third classification, semi-passive tag, is also available (Kumari, Narsaiah, Grewal, & Anurag, 2015) This third option includes battery power for the chip circuits and remains inactive until the reader activates the RFID tag. All three classifications provide real-time monitoring of the item. It is within the construction industry where RFID tags are currently being underutilized within the supply chain models. Wang, Hu, and Zhou (2017) note that the construction industry is highly dependent on traditional methods and slow to new technology. Other industries like the medical, food, and science embrace the opportunities of RFID technology and enjoy the benefits. Article Summary The initial use of RFID tags is within a warehouse in managing inventory items through the production process. Zhou, Piramuthu, Chu, and Chu (2019) suggest taking the technology a step further by creating a smart warehouse environment tracking not only the inventory but also other components of the facility. Taking a piece part from a shelf will update the inventory level, yet tracking can be lost if the entire storage bin is moved elsewhere within the warehouse. Additionally, a picker would receive notification of inventory relocated off the shelf, such as in quality assurance, and reduce the time spent looking for products. Managing these items that are commonly misplaced would reduce errors and costs. The smart warehouse study relaxed the current rules of storage/item location and allowed more flexibility of storage. The goal was to remove the stigma of items being placed on the wrong shelf which typical causes inventory discrepancies and shrinkage. The RFID tags within the products and storage bins allow the picker to put the bin back where it fits, possibly making space for other larger or smaller items. The results of Zhou, Piramuthu, Chu, and Chu (2019) study found success through performance improvement with minimizing read errors, inventory shrinkage, and theft. Biblical Integration God’s perfect design of our world is through much organization. RFID tags provide businesses a tool helping the ability to be organized within their processes. 1 Corinthians 14:40 states “But all things should be done decently and in order” (English Standard Version). Using tools like RFID tags allow organizations to succeed in their business (Proverbs 10:4, ESV). Disorganization can lead to wastefulness and inefficiencies, ultimately affecting the company’s bottom line and success. On the contrary, the Bible does caution of marking ourselves. During the end times written in the book of Revelation, the scripture cautions Christians against the mark of the beast (Revelations 13:11-18, ESV). One could argue the RFID tags are a step towards the technology of this human identification system. At this present time, RFID technology does offer a range of practical applications managing the inventory of items, whether inanimate objects or animals. Application RFID technology offers a wide variety of applications. Ornithologists successfully use RFID tags in tracking bird migration and nesting patterns (Iserbyt, Griffioen, Borremans, Eens, & Muller, 2018). The study argues their study is applicable for other creatures as long as the RFID tag can be attached and be near the receiving antenna. Floyd (2015) expands the RFID potential noting this technology is currently being used to track ownership of animals and pets. Cattle tags, attached to their ear, are a visible RFID whereas the tags the size of rice grain are inserted into pets under the skin. Construction companies have primarily used barcodes for tracking raw material yet technology is pushing the industry to RFID tags would provide reduced operational costs (Wang, Hu, & Zhou, 2017). Applications of monitoring inventory have gone beyond the original use. RFID tags are the proposed solution for locating library books belonging to the Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering that had wandered off (Toivanen, et al., 2016). The marked books are located by a UHF reader was custom built to scan the campus to locate the missing property. With market globalization, RFID tags on food items provide higher levels of traceability of crop location details and harvest date (Kumari, Narsaiah, Grewal, & Anurag, 2015). Information on our food can prevent spoilage in transit as well as identifying products made with infected crops, such as e-coli bacteria. Overall, there is a huge potential in applying RFID technology.Annotated BibliographyFloyd, R. (2015, September-October). RFID in animal-tracking applications. IEEE Potentials, 34(5), 32-33. doi:10.1109/MPOT.2015.2410308 Floyd (2015) reviews the different RFID tags used on animals. The United States and Australia require livestock have RFID tags, whereas Israel and Northern Ireland require residents to tag their dogs. The most common RFID tag is placed just under the skin of pets and is the size of a rice grain. Farms use RFID tags to monitor the livestock weight to adjust the proper feeding amount for the animal. The US Fish and Wildlife use RFID tags for monitoring bison herds, bears, elk herds, and armadillos. These tags can be read at 30 feet, however, companies are researching ways to extend this range to nearly 300 feet. Iserbyt, A., Griffioen, M., Borremans, B., Eens, M., & Muller, W. (2018). How to quantify animal activity from radio-frequency identification (RFID) recordings. Ecology and Evolution, 8(20), 10166-10174. doi:dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1002/ece3.4491RFID tags provide tracking of the German blue tit bird species allowing scientists to monitor at a distance their migration patterns and nesting habits (Iserbyt, et. al, 2018). Tags were placed on the birds using leg bands and the antennas were inconspicuously placed at feeding stations and expected breeding areas. The RFID tags provided more accurate scientific data as there was no human interference. Video surveillance confirmed the behavior data, yet errors were observed due to the technology not understanding bird behavior. The birds would sit on the antenna causes continuous tracking activity making it appear the bird was passing the radar at a constant quick pace. Kumari, L., Narsaiah, K., Grewal, M. K., & Anurag, R. K. (2015, June). Application of RFID in agri-food sector. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 43(2), 144-161. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2015.02.005The article explains the RFID benefits to the agriculture and food industry (Kumari, et, al, 2015). RFID tags provide real-time monitoring of the products, quality control, food safety, and traceability from crops or farm to table. With the globalization of our food sources, RFID tag traceability assists with managing bacteria transmittal by pin-pointing the exact crop. An example provided in the article is the Dole Food Company use of the RFID tags of contaminated lettuce to recall tainted food packages. The article authors push for further advancement of RFID technology to include aromatic notifications detecting freshness and spoilage of products. Meredith, J. R., & Shafer, S. M. (2016). Operations and Supply Chain Management for MBAs (6th ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.The course textbook reviews several aspects of business operations and supply chain management (Meredith & Shafer, 2016). Instruction in the book includes competitive strategy, project management, supply chain processes, and process improvement. Specific to this discussion board forum, RFID tags are discussed within the supply chain management trends as well as a useful tool for lean organizations. Toivanen, L., Heino, M., Oksman, A., Vienamo, A., Holopainen, J., & Viikari, V. (2016, June). RFID-based book finder. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 58(3), 72-80. doi:10.1109/MAP.2016.2541602 Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering is using RFID tags to locate school property that wandered away from its correct storage location (Toivanen, et. al, 2016). The study focused specifically on research material and textbooks. Commercially available RFID tags were selected for the application as it is readily available at a low cost. An RFID reader was modified to work at a longer distance and be the book finder. The RFID tags proved successful having the reader detect the tag from nearly 23 feet away. When scanning for RFID tags, the closer one is to the item the faster the result will appear on the reader. Wang, Z., Hu, H., & Zhou, W. (2017). RFID enabled knowledge-based precast construction supply chain. Computer-Aided Civil & Infrastructure Engineering, 32(6), 499-514. doi:doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1111/mice.12254The construction industry current model of supply chain tracking is using manual lists and barcodes (Wang, Hu, & Zhou, 2017). The article reviews the disadvantages of current tracking models and proposes RFID tags for tracking the raw material to the finished product of construction projects. Data suggest RFID systems would give 62% operational cost savings with reducing lead times and removing errors. RFID tags would begin tracking from the raw material through production processes, compiled into one final product and tracked in transit to the final destination. Real-time data through this process maintains costs and provides accurate information of supply chain to management. Zhou, W., Piramuthu, S., Chu, F., & Chu, C. (2019, June). RFID-enabled flexible warehousing. Decision Support Systems, 99, 99-112. doi:doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2017.05.002Warehouses are typically structured with an extreme organization to maintain the product inventory (Zhou, et. al, 2019). The article reviews the success of implementing RFID tags on inventory items as well as their designated storage bins. Relaxing the well-managed organization requirements help avoid placement confusion and improved productivity. The RFID system has real-time exact locations of inventory, regardless if the item had been moved hours earlier by another employee. This setup, considered a smart logistics system, provided improved performance and reduced operational costs. Employees were no longer wasting time looking for items missing from correct locations but directed to their exact position within the facility. 2ND REPLY……. Taylor N. Herndon Key Concept Rationale Cellular Production is defined as a production that utilizes multiple types of shops to maximize production, while providing a reduction of costs in a constrained time frame. According to Meredith and Shafer (2016), “Cellular production combines the advantages of the job shop and flow shop to obtain the high variety possible with the job form and the reduced costs and short response times available with the flow form” (p. 79). According to Aalaei and Davoudpour (2017), “A special characteristic of a cellular manufacturing system derived from GT (group technology) concepts, is to divide the existing machines into some cells with strong independence” (p. 667). Aalaei and Davoudpour (2017) state that the benefits of cellular manufacture systems include “reducing the setup times, cycle time, work-in-process, worker, rework and scrap material, delivery time, production costs, increasing flexibility, enhancing product quality, and production control” (p. 667). The ultimate goal of cellular production is to maximize the production while reducing costs and time, while ensuring the quality of the product. Article Summary “A Robust Optimization Model for Cellular Manufacturing System into Supply Chain Management” by Amin Aalaei and Hamid Davoudpour was selected for review to evaluate a new method to address cellular manufacturing system into a design for supply chain with a labor assignment. The article explores the impact of “multiple plant locations, multi-market allocations with production planning and various part mix” (p. 667). The ultimate goal of the proposed research includes the reduction of costs for handling of materials, transportation of products, salaries of machine and labor. In the literature of the research, it is noted that the cellular manufacturing system into supply chain management is comprised of different functions. These functions include “purchasing and outsourcing, production, inventory management, network planning and distribution” (p. 668). Each of these functions are utilized for the product to flow through to fulfill the customer’s need. The model proposed evaluates three approaches: optimistic, pessimistic and normal. It, also, address a robust optimization approach, which is utilized to solve the problem with the best solution. The robust optimization approach “presented two types of robustness: 1) solution robustness (the solution is close to optimal totally scenarios) and 2) model robustness (the solution is close to feasible in totally scenarios)” (p. 669). The design of this model included “various components of SC (supply chain) such as manufacturer, warehouses, markets and transportation of products from plants to the market” (p. 671). According to Aalaei and Davoudpour (2017), “The aim of the proposed model is to minimize the total cost of holding, inter-cell material handling, external transportation, fixed cost for producing each part in each plant, machine and salary labor” (p. 671). Ultimately, a new mathematical model for cellular manufacturing into supply chain management with labor assignment was established within an uncertain environment. This model addressed many manufacturing features. The major constraints that were addressed included “satisfaction of market demand, machine and labor availability, machine and labor time-capacity, design of the CMS within each active plant and the amounts allocated to each market” (p. 676). The study revealed that the study concluded that the proposed model was more practical in dealing with uncertain economic scenarios. Comparison The main similarity that is noted between this week’s text and the main article of review is that both are attempting to achieve the maximum output from cellular production. Both texts examine the different components which comprise cellular production. In the textbook, the main focus was to explain as to what cellular production entails and the terms which are included in the makeup. For example, it discusses that cellular production is based upon group technology. This is what is utilized to determine similarities among parts of production. Once the parts that are similar are grouped, they are placed into a family. This family is then placed into a cell which is comprised of the machinery with similar functions and the human skills that a utilized to achieve the task. The task that utilizes families, often utilize teams. The required job of teams is to complete the tasks which are required in a cell. The textbook then addresses the advantages and disadvantages of cellular production. The main article reviewed that was written by Aalaei and Davoudpour (2017) discuss what characteristics of cellular production can be manipulated to ultimately improve the production for the company while maintaining or reducing production costs. Through utilization of job shop within cellular production, it can be very costly to production if a machine breaks down, so through research conducted, methods to reduce costs by combining job responsibilities to maximize production. Biblical Integration In cellular production, the many parts are often not known until they are looked at entirely. There is no single part of production that is any less important than the other parts of production. In 1 Corinthian 12: 12-25, it states that different portions of the body and how none of the parts are any less important to the overall function of the body. 1 Corinthians 12: 12-25 states, 12 For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ. 13 For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. 14 For the body is not one member, but many. 15 If the foot shall say, Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body?1 6 And if the ear shall say, Because I am not the eye, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? 17 If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where were the smelling?1 8 But now hath God set the members every one of them in the body, as it hath pleased him. 19 And if they were all one member, where were the body? 20 But now are they many members, yet but one body.21 And the eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee: nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you.22 Nay, much more those members of the body, which seem to be more feeble, are necessary: 23 And those members of the body, which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant honour; and our uncomely parts have more abundant comeliness. 24 For our comely parts have no need: but God hath tempered the body together, having given more abundant honour to that part which lacked. 25 That there should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the same care one for another.Production has to include every aspect, or it won’t be successful. The body has to utilize all parts to achieve its ultimate goal, so when examining production, it is imperative to view all aspects as imperative to the overall function.Application (100 words)In an article by Stier and Laigen (2010), it was presented how the design of cellular production has been utilized to teach college student engineering concepts. The simulation is divided among four phases to provide the pros and cons of the different shop setups. The first simulation has the students keep their inventory in specific location and they are not allowed to communicate with other students which creating them final airplane products. The second simulation is comprised of the six (6) groups. In these groups, the students can communicate; however, the airplane has to go to each group prior to the product being finalized. The simulations were utilized to provide students the opportunity to see the differences and pros and cons of the different shop setups. Cellular production was utilized to provide the students the ability to pinpoint production problems. Annotated Bibliography Aalaei, A., & Davoudpour, H. (2017). A robust optimization model for cellular manufacturing system into supply chain management. International Journal of Production Economics, 183, 667-679. doi:10.1016/j.ipe.2016.01.014This article examines the complexity of cellular production and how small mishaps can be costly to the company, so a model should be developed to reduce the costs incurred. A robust optimization model was created to determine how to reduce the costs. It revealed that the model was most successful for scenarios where the economy was uncertain. This is evident that the cellular manufacturing system often takes into consideration factors which can influence the potential cost of production. Liu, C., Wang, J., & Leung, J. Y. (2018). Integrated bacteria foraging algorithm for cellular manufacturing in supply chain considering facility transfer and production planning. Applied Soft Computing Journal, 62, 602-618. doi:10.1016/j.asoc.2017.10.034This paper provides an integrated model for production planning and facility transfer in dynamic cellular manufacturing based supply chain. This examines the ability to transfer orders to a larger facility which can fulfill orders while reaching the smaller, local customer base. The transfer would be done to a facility in which can generate numerous products. Transferring to this form of facility will create a load of problems which would not be beneficial to the company. Moving to a larger company will create the issue of locating lower material costs. This will create a backorder or material holding issue. An integrated bacteria foraging algorithm (IBFA) was proposed. This is comprised of five (5) phases. This model concluded that the IBFA often operates better with the five (5) phases.Meredith, J. R., & Shafer, S.M. (2016). Operations and Supply Chain Management for MBAs (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.This textbook provides a cohesive analysis of the subject of operations and supply chain management. The work of this textbook is targeted to graduate level students. It covers an array of topics including the strategies and implementation of processes, managing and improving processes, and process and supply chain design. The process and supply chain design examination addresses the many factors which comprise production and the aspects of those factors which can be beneficial and harmful to the company. Raoofpanah, H., Ghazavati. V., & Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R. (2019). Solving a new robust green cellular manufacturing problem with environmental issues under uncertainty using benders decomposition. Engineering Optimization, 51(7), 1229-1250. doi:10.1080/0305215X.2018.1517258This article addresses the impact of environmental issues and how they have an influence on production. This article, also, fills the gap and proposes a new method which would consider environmental issues. The issues addressed include pollution caused by production and transportation modes and waste from production. A robust optimization approach is utilized to examine this as the processing times of the products are uncertain. Benders decompositions algorithm is presented to solve the issue. The results indicate that the demand has the greatest effect on cell formation.Stie, K., & Laingen, M. (2010). Using Simulation to Introduce Engineering Concepts.Technology & Engineering Teacher, 70(3), 20-26This article provides an example where students are able to participate in cellular production and experience the problems that can arise. There are four phases in which the students participate. The first phase is comprised of the students making as many airplanes as they can while not speaking to each other. This simulation, also, included the inventory having to be located in one specific location. In the second simulation, there were six workstations in which the product had to go to each station prior to it being finalized. In this simulation, students were able to communicate among their peers. Changes were made in each phase until the four phases were completed with the students learning the pros and cons of cellular production, while also learning what possible problems could arise. Soolaki, M., & Arkat, J. (2018). Incorporating Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing into StrategicSupply Chain Design. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 95(5), 2429-2447. doi:10.1007/s00170-017-1346-2This article strives to increase the efficiency of supply chain. This takes into consideration the relationship between the stages of procurement of raw material, manufacturing of products, and distribution. The manufacturers were geographically placed in a cell design. A model was presented with the integration of sectors of procurement, production, and distribution of products. A new algorithm called hybrid genetic ant lion optimization (HGALO) was established to find the best or near best solutions. A comparison was presented between HGALO and the genetic algorithm to show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The HGALO algorithm identified the ability to locate high quality solutions.
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