Arecanut and Cocoa Production and Marketing Aspects
Recants and Cocoa: Production and Marketing Aspects Recants is an important commercial crop in India which plays a prominent role in the religious, social and cultural functions and economic life of people in India. The present production of recants in the world is about 0. 854 million tons from an area of 0. 702 million hectares. India ranks first in both area and production of recants Recants industry forms the economic backbone of nearly six million people in India and for many of them it is the sole means of livelihood. Both area and production of recants in India have increased tremendously during the last three cascades.
The area under recants in India has increased from 0. 167 million hectares during 1971 to 0. 4 million hectares by the year 2010-11 with an overall growth rate of 2. 2%. During the same period the production has increased more than 3 times from 0. 141 million tons to 0. 478 million tones with a growth rate of 3. 2%. As of now, cocoa is one of the important commercial plantation crops in India and it is mainly cultivated in four major southern States biz. , Kraal, Karakas, Tamil Nadia and Andorra Pradesh. India produces 12954 tones of cocoa from an area of 46318 ha DDCD, 2010).
The cocoa industry in the country had expanded to a considerable extent in recent years. At present, more than 15 industrial entrepreneurs and firms existing in the field demand nearly 30,000 tones of cocoa beans, of which the present domestic availability is only about 40 percent. Considering the market growth in the chocolate segment in India, which is about 20 percent per annum, cocoa, has a great potential to develop in future years. Recent area expansion in Andorra Pradesh (16969 ha) can be taken as a positive response to the demand-supply fissure.
By Skyjackers growth in the chocolate segment in India, which is about 20 percent per annum, cocoa has a great potential to develop in future years. The demand of cocoa during 2050 is estimated as 293 thousand tones against the estimated supply of 121 thousand tones. Recusant I l[Pick] I Cocoa I [pick] I I Fig . Demand and supply scenario of coconut, recants and cocoa Economic impact analysis of recants based cropping system An impact analysis of recants based cropping systems in South Karakas has been carried out.
It was observed that, farmers are predominantly following three cropping yester which were, 1) recants + banana 2) recants + cocoa and 3) recants + banana + pepper. To estimate the economic impact of different cropping systems, we have calculated the average cost per hectare, average yield and the net returns of each system. The quantification of economic impact of each system has been worked out by combining the difference in net returns of each system from the recants monocot, and percentage of adoption of each cropping system.
The total economic impact due to adoption of cropping systems in the region was found to be RSI 680 million. Economic impact analysis of improved recants varieties The analysis was based on a field survey of 120 recants farmers in South Karakas. To estimate the economic impact of improved varieties we have calculated the weighed average cost per hectare, weighed yield and net returns of the released varieties. The weights are assigned according to the estimated percentage area of each variety in South Karakas.
The total area of recants in the district was multiplied with the percentage adoption of improved varieties in the region to arrive at the total area under improved varieties. The difference in net returns will give the additional benefit we would have obtained, had the area been under released varieties. It was observed that 13. 6% of total area in southern Karakas is under released recants varieties. The economic impact of released recants varieties in monitory terms was found to be rupees 141 million per year.
The presence of improved varieties was more prominent in the young plantations. The holding wise observations revealed that the presence of released varieties was more in small holding groups. Cost of production of recants and cocoa According to the study conducted by the Institute, the cost of production of one kilogram of recants in a well-maintained garden was found to be RSI 104. 20 Here we have considered the economic life p of the palm as 35 years and average annual production as 2700 keg/ha The average maintenance cost (from 8th year to 35th year) garden was found to be Errs. 2/keg of dry beans and average annual maintenance cost recorded at RSI 55268/ha. Marketing The chili and the red are the two main varieties of recants consumed by the people mostly as a habit. Chili or the white supers is used mainly in the pan or beads and the red variety is used both in the preparation of pan and value added products like pan miasmal, caught, sweet supers etc. From production to consumption level both private traders and the co-operatives play an important role in India.
Here, the share of the cooperative is around 15 per cent and remaining is under the control of the private traders. Among the cooperatives The CAMP, a nodal agency has its own purchasing and sales centers throughout the country Disposal pattern: A study in Dashing Karakas showed that 80 percent of the rammers, who dispose the produce immediately after harvest, were small cultivators. Remaining 20 per cent who disposed the produce when the prices in the market are favorable, were large farmers.
It was observed that indebtedness and lack of proper infrastructure facilities for storage compel the small farmer to dispose the produce at the earliest. The majority of the farmers (63%) sold chili supers to traders, who reportedly paid two rupees extra of the market rate per keg of chili sold. Stagnating market prices and increasing cost of production, especially the skilled Barbour charges in the recent times have generated livelihood concerns of recants farmers in India.
Surging imports, which is around 12 percent of the domestic production, certainly has a significant role in price stickiness. Market studies reveal that around 75 percent of the recants trade is in the hands of private trades, which has provided ample scope for hoarding and resulted in market imperfections and low price realization. In the case of cocoa the current supply is only around fifty percent of the actual domestic demand and hence, there exist a huge scope for area expansion with the supply of elite seedlings/grafts.
Effective dissemination of technologies through trainings, on-farm trials, demonstrations and seminars are being carried out by the Institute. Nevertheless, the price stagnation of the crop for a long period has caused disinterest among recants farmers. Therefore, in the case of recants a vicious cycle was formed in the pattern of ‘depressed prices + shortage of labor–crop negligence–diseases [pest attack–low yield/production’ and this in turn especially has adversely affected the small and marginal recants farmers who are solely dependent on the crop.