An Ideal Hero: Greek vs. Roman

1. Features that identify a society as “civilized”

a. Agriculture (irrigation) and breeding of animals = surplus food (goats, peig, cattle, sheep). Wheat, barley, rice, and maize. (Sci&Tech- polish stone tools. Ex: stone sickles)
b. Cities: large apartment settlements= standard architecture & surplus manpower
c. Writing (“gifts of the gods”)= records. Pictograph, ideogram, cuneiform.
d. Institutions for centralized & inherited power . – Priesthood for centralized sacred ritual – Kingship for centralized political and social structure (Paraoh= kings in Egypt) .

2. Geographical areas of early civilizations (Attached)
3. Ages of early Greek mythology to Ovid ( Poet of Metamorphoses)

a. Origin of humans: sacred clay (wise and rulers) blood of titans (murderous and criminals), and stones(endurance)
b. 4 ages as decline: Golden (peace), Silver (seasons &farming), Bronze (war), Iron (mining, deforestation, crime).

4. Dominant and alternate cultural themes in the Iliad Audience: upper-class men Purpose: cultural propaganda.
Greek Heros= models of courage & skill to men (what to be) & women (what to look for- sense of security). a. Dominant Theme: warrior code of personal honor and glory b. Contrasting themes: Family principle, simple country life vs. war, admiration of enemies. 5. Literary works by Homer Blind poet Homer – represents the culmination of a long and vigorous tradition in which oral recitation—possibly to instrumental accompaniment—was a popular kind of entertainment. Iliad, Odyssey.
6. Major column types in Greek architecture (know the parts) a. Doric: Plan projects strength, power. Useful for king or state intimidate?
Temple to powerful gods. b. Ionic: elegant, sophisticated. Useful for gods and people of wisdom. Libraries. c. Corinthian: more sophisticated. Projects wealth and power that comes with it. Useful to imperial Rome to intimidate and amaze. Makes the emperor or state look all powerful, even if they aren’t! [pic]
7. Major parts of architectural buildings on the Acropolis of Athens (City on the hills. Ex: Propyleia & Parthenon) a. Propylaia: Monumental entrance as the gate/threshold into the sacred hill. b. Athena Nike: shrine to Athena as goddess of victory. Guardian of the hill. c. Parthenon (the Virgin) East Pediment (front): birth of Athena. Born from the head of Zeus= intuition. Feminine principle of wisdom, sacred bird is the one. – West Pediment (back): Competition between Athena & Poseidon for Athens. Ancestors chose Athen’s gift for the olive tree= they preferred to war. Athenians all sheer this wisdom and desire for peace. – The metopes (framed carvings on each side): the victories over the Amazons, centaurs, giants, and Trojans/Persians = justice prevails over brute force, aggression.
8. Major philosophers of the Greek Classical and Hellenistic periods Greek Classical: a. Moral: Socrates Dialectic Method= critical approach. Question & answer search for “Truth” – “Knowledge is virtue” & “to know the good is to do the good. ” – “The unexamined life is not worth living” – “Produced skeptics (only believe what is absolutely certain) & agnostics (don’t believe what is not known for certain). b. Social: Plato – Student of Socrates; Founded Academy in Athens, 387 B. C. – Theory of Forms: where is “Truth”: uncanning, state Level 4: Knowledge= certainties Level 3: Thinking= math geometry abstracts Lower Levels: Opinions Level 2: Beliefs (“Material world is true gone. ) Level 1: Imaginings (“Images [art] = reality) – Allegory of the Cave. Truth is painful. c. Logic: Aristotle – Student of Plato, founded school in Athens, 335 B. C. – Organized natural sciences into biology, zoology, botany – Theory of Universals: Inductive Science: Universals discovered from particulars, therefore studying the material world can (only) produce universals/ absolutes. Plato’s dualism devalued study of material world. – Deductive/Formal Logic for ethics and science Hellenistic: a. Epicuranism – Founder: Epicurus (341-271 B. C. ) Atomist: all matter made up of atoms so all forms are random; no controls – No afterlife: death= end; no judgment – Absolute free will: each creates own destiny; absolute individuality – Goal of life: Pleasure (hedone> hedonism) *individual pleasure -> society would crush Pleasure: absence of pain. Pain < unsatisfied desires. Minimal desires > Peace & pleasure; harmony = agreement between desires and fulfillment. Life of Moderation (Ex: credit card vs. cash budget). b. Stoicism *Resistance cause pain, learn to live the Stoic life. – Founder: Zeno (334-262 B. C. ) Social Logos (=Heraclitus): All natural and society controlled by reason. The destiny of one is the FOR THE GOOD OF THE WHOLE. Happiness < accepting one’s destiny. – Suffering < resisting predestined life – Stoic Goal: Evenness, dispassionate= no joy in success, no sorrow in failure. – Brotherhood of Man: Logos Lives in everything and everyone as fire DEFINITION (know the basic meaning or reference of each term) -Polytheism/monotheism: the belief in many gods/ the belief in only one god. – Post & lintel: the simplest form or architectural construction, consisting of vertical members (posts) and supporting horizontals (lintels). Caste System: a rigid social stratification in India based on differences in wealth, rank, or occupation. – Muse/muses: music – Ziggurat: a terraced tower of rubble and brick that served ancient Mesopotamians as a temple-shrine. – Pharaoh: title of Egyptian king. – Dialectic: question-and- answer style (Socrates) – Animism: the belief that the forces of nature are inhibited by spirits. – Homeopathic: power infused based on likeness or imitation. *exaggerates sometime. – Hellenistic: followed by the Classical era; the blending of Greek, African, and Asian cultures. – Pantheism: the belief that a divine spirit pervades all things in universe. Contagion: power transferred by contact. – Stoic Logos: Seminal Reason, through which all things came to be, by which all things were ordered, and to which all things returned. – Myth: story form (poetry) vs. philosophy or scientific explanation; typically involving gods and ancestors with supernatural power. Purpose: to order universe and society. – Ethnocentric: the belief in the inherent superiority of one’s own ethnic group or culture. – Epicureanism: Happiness depending on avoiding all forms of physical excess; valued plain living and the perfect union of body and mind.
Gods played no part in human life, and death was nothing more than the rearrangement of atoms which the body and all of nature consist. – Covenant: contract; the bod between the Hebrew people and their god. – Yin/Yang: the principle, which ancient Chinese emperors called “the foundation of the entire universe,” interprets all nature as the dynamic product of two interacting cosmic forces, or modes of energy, commonly configured as twin interpenetrating shapes enclosed within a circle. Yang- male principle: lightness, hardness, brightness, warmth, and the sun. Ying- female principle: darkness, softness, moisture, coolness, the earth. Metope: the square panel between the beam ends under the roof of a structure. – Plato’s Theory of Forms:where is “Truth”? Above: perfect world of forms: originals, absolute, uncanning state. Below: imperfect world of matter: copies, changing, opinions. – Ideal tragedy: hero’s life changes from fortune to misfortune due to intellectual error. – Pediment: the triangular space forming the gable of a two-pitched roof in Classical architecture; any similar triangular form found over a portico, door, or window. – Epic History: a long narrative poem that recounts the deeds of a legendary or historical hero in his quest for meaning or identity.
IDENTIFICATION: Know who or what each refers to -Venus Figurines: sympathetic & contagious magic for fertility of nature and humans. -Stone Henge: sacred space; limitation of celestial world? Sun and moon for their fertility power? -Parthenon: the outstanding architectural achievement of Golden Age Athens -Gate of Ishtar: one of the eight gates of the inner city of Babylon (main entrance), was built during the reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II (604- 562 BC), after he burned Jerusalem. Starting point for Nebuchadnezzar II, after he bought the kingdom of Judah to an end; he wants to beautify the capital. Achilles: Achaean (Greek) hero of the Trojan War, the central character and the greatest warrior of Homer’s Iliad. -Plato: Wrote the famous treatise, Republic. Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens. -Hammurapi: sixth king of Babylon, known for the set of laws called Hammurabi’s Code, one of the first written codes of law in recorded history. -Athena: goddess of wisdom and war. -Sophocles: second of the great tragedians, developed his plots through the actions of the characters.
He modified the ceremonial formality of earlier Greek tragedies by individualizing the characters and introducing moments of great psychological intimacy. Antigone -Confucius ?? : Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. -Zeus: the powerful sky god. -Epicurus: Greek thinker who advocated Epicuranism. -Moses: the leader who led the Hebrews across the Red Sea. -Antigone: A tragic play wrote by Sophocles.
Proceed from the last phase of the history of Thebes. The play deals with many issues: duty to family (generation) vs. duty to state/law; female willpower vs. male authority (gender) -Homer: poet who wrote Iliad and Odyssey -Aristotle: Student of Plato, Aristotle’s writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics. -Zeno: Founder of Stoicism. MAP (be able to match the culture with its geography) 2. Nile r. / Jerusalem/Egypt 3. Euphrates r. / Tigris r. Persia /Babylon/ Mesopotamia 4. Olympus /Athens/ Aegean Sea/ Greece [pic]

myhomeworkgeeks (28431)
New York University

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