Acid-Base Balance and Related Disorders

Table of Contents


The acid-base state of the body is one of the most important and strictly stabilized parameters of homeostasis. The activity of enzymes and hormones largely depends on water and electrolyte metabolism. The goal of any treatment caused by the disorder of these functions is to restore the normal internal environment of the body, in other words, stabilize the parameters of the acid-base state. In the considered case, the patient experienced severe attacks that caused her temporary disability. The stabilization of the acid-base balance is an essential task, and the reasons may lie in primary disturbances in the activity of organs and systems, for instance, problems with the bicarbonate buffer system.

Acid-Base Imbalance and Its Etiology

The acid-base imbalance is the violation of the balance of acids and bases in the body, which, as a result, leads to such symptoms as diarrhea, vomiting, and other unpleasant manifestations. According to Taha et al. (2016), there are two main types of such a disorder – acidosis and alkalosis. As the authors note, in the first case, there is a shift in the acid-base balance in the body towards an increase in acidity (Taha et al., 2016). In the second case, the accumulation of alkalis is in excess (Taha et al., 2016). In case of the development of any of these types, it is crucial to find and eliminate the primary dysfunctions that led to the appearance of corresponding symptoms. Proper nutrition, the rejection of bad habits, and control over the quality of drinking water are objective conditions for the prevention of these disorders.

Functions and Importance of the Bicarbonate Buffer System

The buffer properties of the body are its ability to counteract changes in the concentration of acids or bases. There are several systems that perform this function, and one of them is bicarbonate. According to Krieg, Taghavi, Amidon, and Amidon (2015), it is a sufficiently powerful system of extracellular fluid and blood. Its importance lies in the ability to respond to changes in the internal environment and remove excess particles that affect the acid-base state negatively. In general, as the authors state, the bicarbonate system makes it possible to maintain a normal pH level in the body (Krieg et al., 2015). In the case study under consideration, the violation of this level could cause the disorder of the acid-base balance.

Patient Education

In case a person has problems with the acid-base balance, he or she will experience the aforementioned symptoms periodically. Gooch (2015) argues that in order to normalize the state of the body, it is essential to follow the advice and recommendations of a competent medical specialist. The latter, in turn, can win patient cooperation by teaching the basic principles of preventing such a disorder. With appropriate interaction, the problem may be resolved subsequently or at least minimized. Therefore, the assistance of health personnel is important in relation to patients’ pathological conditions.


The violation of the acid-base balance is fraught with unpleasant and dangerous symptoms. Based on the case study considered, one can note that the problem may lie in the dysfunction of the bicarbonate buffer system, and the elimination of primary problems is necessary. The most common types of imbalance are acidosis and alkalosis. Maintaining a normal pH level in the body is one of the conditions for wellness. To solve the problems associated with this topic, consultations with medical specialists are necessary since productive cooperation may help stabilize the acid-base balance.


Gooch, M. D. (2015). Identifying acid-base and electrolyte imbalances. The Nurse Practitioner, 40(8), 37-42. Web.

Krieg, B. J., Taghavi, S. M., Amidon, G. L., & Amidon, G. E. (2015). In vivo predictive dissolution: Comparing the effect of bicarbonate and phosphate buffer on the dissolution of weak acids and weak bases. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 104(9), 2894-2904. Web.

Taha, D. A., De Moor, C. H., Barrett, D. A., Lee, J. B., Gandhi, R. D., Hoo, C. W., & Gershkovich, P. (2016). The role of acid-base imbalance in statin-induced myotoxicity. Translational Research, 174, 140-160. Web.

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